농식품 이력관리체계 확대 및 활성화 방안 연구

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(1)C2011-37 | 2011. 11.. 농식품 이력관리체계 확대 및 활성화 방안 연구. 이 황 우 조 정. 계 윤 병 소 세. 임 재 준 현 미. 정 위 주. 진 태 문. 형 축산물품질평가원 석 농 촌 진 흥 청 배 해양수산개발원. 연. 구. 위. 원. 부 연 구 위 원 연. 구. 위. 원. 초 청 연 구 원 인 턴 연 구 원.

(2) 연구 담당 이계임 황윤재 우병준 조소현 정세미. 연 구 위 부 연 구 위 연 구 위 초 청 연 구 인 턴 연 구. 원 원 원 원 원. 정진형 주문배 위태석. 축산물품질평가원 해양수산개발원 농 촌 진 흥 청. 연구총괄, 1~4장, 6~7장 집필 5장 집필 5장3절 집필 자료수집·분석, 부록정리 자료수집·분석, 부록정리 국산 쇠고기 이력관리 현황, 부록1 집필 수산물 이력관리 현황 일본 사례.

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(4) i. 머 리 말. 소득수준 향상과 고령화 등으로 소비자의 식품 안전성에 대한 관심이 매우 높은 반면, 수입 농식품의 증가와 산업화·과학의 발달에 따른 위해물질의 등장 으로 소비자의 식품 안전에 대한 불안이 빠르게 증가하고 있다. 최근 들어 식 품 안전사고가 증가하고, 가축 질병의 확산과 원산지 허위표시 적발 등으로 소 비자의 불신이 더욱 확산되고 정책의 신뢰도가 크게 저하된 상태이다. 이력관 리제도는 안전성 확보를 위해 단계별로 정보를 기록, 관리하는 것을 목적으로 추진되었다. 이력관리제도는 2006년에 농산물에 대해서 시행된 이후 2008년에 는 수산물과 소 및 쇠고기 이력관리가 도입되고, 2009년부터는 식품 이력관리 제도가 추진되고 있다. 이력관리제도가 정부 주도로 적극 추진되어 왔음에도 불구하고 식품별 추진 체계가 크게 상이하여 이력관리 방향과 목적이 불분명하며, 효율적인 추진체계 로 운영되어 왔다고 평가하기 어려운 상황이다. 쇠고기 이외의 농식품에 대한 이력관리제도의 경우 농가와 관련 업체의 참여가 매우 저조하다. 이 연구는 식품 안전사고 발생 시 신속한 대응 체계를 구축하고 안전한 식품 선택을 위한 소비자 알권리를 확보하기 위해 농·수·축산식품 이력관리제도의 추진방향을 재정립하고, 효율적인 회수기반 구축 등 활성화 방안을 마련하고자 추진되었다. 이 연구가 향후 이력제도 추진 정책시책에 반영되어 농식품의 이 력관리능력을 제고시킴으로써 궁극적으로 농식품 안전사고 시 위기대응능력 제고와 소비자의 농식품에 대한 신뢰 확대를 가져올 것을 기대해 본다. 연구에 참여해주신 외부 전문가 여러분과 설문에 응해주신 주부 여러분께 감사드린다. 2011. 11. 한국농촌경제연구원장 이 동 필.

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(6) iii. 요. 약. 이 연구는 식품 안전사고 발생 시 신속한 대응 체계를 구축하고 안전한 식품 선택을 위한 소비자 알권리를 확보하기 위해 농·수·축산식품 이력관리제도의 추진방향을 재정립하고, 효율적인 회수기반 구축 등 활성화 방안을 마련하는데 목적이 있다. 식품사고 발생 시의 긴급대응이 시급한 과제로 등장하면서 유럽을 중심으로 이력추적관리제도가 도입되기 시작하였으며, 우리나라에서는 2006년에 농산 물 이력추적관리제도, 2008년에 수산물과 소 및 쇠고기 이력관리제도, 2009년 부터 식품 이력추적관리제도가 시행되었다. 이력추적관리제도에 관한 법률은 식품류별로 분산되어 있으며, 제도의 목적이 분명하지 않고 용어·표시사항·표 시방법·처벌규정 등에 있어서도 많은 차이를 보이고 있다. 식품류별로 다수 시 스템으로 운영되기 때문에 유사한 업무가 분산 관리되고, 소비자 혼동 등의 문 제가 발생한다. 또한 제도별로 중점단계가 상이하고 상호 연계가 되지 않는 문 제점이 나타난다. 소비자 설문조사 결과 식품 구입 시 이력관리 여부를 고려하는 소비자는 매우 소수였으며, 이력관리라는 용어를 잘 알고 있다고 응답한 소비자는 6.6%에 불과 하였다. 이력관리제도 추진의 필요성이 가장 높은 품목은 소부산물로 조사되었 으며, 대체로 육류의 이력관리 필요성을 높게 평가하였다. 소비자의 60% 이상은 쇠고기, 수산물, 농산물을 구입 시 향후 매장이나 가정에서 이력정보를 조회할 의향이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이력추적관리방식으로 전산 상으로 등록 및 관리 되는 것을 선호하는 경향이 있으나, 품목별로 비교해 보면 쌀과 과일, 채소류 등 은 상대적으로 장부상 관리가 적합한 품목으로 인식하였다. 이력추적관리의 목 적으로 육류, 육가공품, 수산물, 음식점, 급식 등은 식품사고 발생 시의 추적이나 회수를 용이하게 하는 것이 더 중요하다고 평가하였다. 농식품 이력추적제도 활 성화 방안으로 소비자들은 감시, 단속 등 사후관리의 중요성을 제시하였다. 주요 국가의 이력관리제도의 시사점은 소·쇠고기 이력제도의 의무 시행, 소·.

(7) iv 쇠고기 이외 품목에 대한 자율적 시행, 이력추적제도의 목적을 추적 가능성으 로 재정립, 국가의 역할을 시스템 개발과 가이드라인 구축 지원 등으로 요약될 수 있다. 농식품 이력관리시스템의 추진방향은 기본적으로 국제기준에 부합하고, 이력 관리 목적을 명확하게 설정하여 이력관리제도의 활성화를 도모하는 데 있다. 이 력관리제도의 직접적인 목표는 단계별 기록·관리에 따른 추적성 확보에 있으며, 소비자 정보제공에 기여나 제품·품질관리의 효율화 등은 부가적인 목적으로 선 택적으로 규정할 수 있다. 농식품 이력관리는 정책방향을 이력추적 기반 확대와 이력관리제도 개선의 두 가지 체계로 구분하여 추진하는 것이 바람직하다. 이력 추적 기반 확대를 위해서 식품거래 전반에서 기록 및 보관에 관한 규정을 보완 하는 방향으로 법률적 조정이 필요하다. 농산물, 수산물, 가공식품의 이력추적 관리제도는 관련 규정의 법률적 통합을 검토하고, 단기적으로는 제도 간 연계가 가능하도록 하는 법률조항을 보완하여 제도별로 용어, 표시항목, 표시방법, 관 리 등에서 모순되는 규정에 대한 조정을 해야 한다. 현재 의무 또는 임의적으로 시행되고 있는 이력관리제도의 개선을 위해서는 운영방식 개선, 연계 강화, 기반 조성 등이 추진되어야 한다. 의무대상 품목은 위해 우려정도와 둔갑가능성, 사 회문화적 중요성 등을 감안하여 결정하며, 돼지고기와 소부산물의 순으로 검토 되어야 한다. 의무 시행되고 있는 쇠고기의 경우 외식까지 확대를 추진할 필요 가 있으나, 거래기장 의무화 차원에서 접근하며 소비자에게는 원산지표시만 제 공하는 방법을 제시하였다. 우유·계란·육가공품 등은 자발적 이력관리제도가 추진될 수 있는 근거조항이 마련되어야 한다. 임의대상 이력관리제도의 경우 업 체에서 품질 관리나 마케팅 차원에서 자율적으로 도입하며, 정부는 가이드라인 도입·시스템 개발 및 보급 지원 등의 역할을 해야 한다. 이력관리제도의 효율적 추진을 위해서는 제도 간 연계 강화가 필요하다. 의무 시행되는 쇠고기의 경우 국내산과 수입산 관리 업무의 연계가 추진되어야 한다. 농·수·가공식품 대상 이 력추적관리제도는 법률과 제도의 통합, 시스템 간 연동, 사후관리의 협력체제 등이 검토되어야 한다. 소비자의 인지도와 접근성 확보를 위해서 이력관리시스 템 홈페이지를 통합하여 소비자 홍보를 적극 추진할 필요가 있다..

(8) v ABSTRACT. Improving Traceability System for Agro-Food Products. The purpose of this research is to establish prompt response system at the time when food safety accidents are occurred, to re-establish traceability system for agricultural, fisheries and livestock food products in order secure consumers' right to know for the selection of safe foods, and to prepare an activation plan for establishing base for efficient food recall. As the issue of emergent response at the time of the occurrence of food related accidents are emerged as urgent tasks, traceability system was started to be introduced with Europe as the center. In our country, traceability system for agricultural products was implemented in 2006, traceability system for fisheries products, cattle and beef was implemented in 2008 and for food in 2009. The laws concerning traceability systems were scattered around by the category of food and the purpose of managing respective systems was not clearly defined while showing significant differences in terminologies, items to be recorded, method of labelling and provisions for punishments as well. As the system are operated with the structure of multiple systems by category of food, the problems such as unnecessary division of similar works and the possibility to make consumers confused are incurred. And also the problems such as different emphasis steps by system and absence of linkage between systems are appeared as well. The result of questionnaire survey on consumers revealed that consumers who considered the existence of traceability system at the time of purchase of food were very little, and the consumers who responded that they knew the term 'traceability system' were not more than 6.6%. The item which showed the highest need for traceability system in the survey was byproducts of cattle while in most cases the needs for traceability system for meats were highly evaluated. The result also revealed that more than 60% of consumers had intention to check traceability information at the stores or at home when they purchase beef, fisheries products or agricultural products in the future. There was a trend for the preference toward the registration and management via computer system as a method of record tracking and managing but consumers perceived the items such as rice, fruits and vegetables as the items.

(9) vi for which management via transaction records is relatively more appropriate. For the purpose of traceability system, it is evaluated to be more important to make tracing or recall easy at the time of the occurrence of food accidents in the case of meat, processed meat products, fisheries products, restaurants and school meals. The importance of post-management such as monitoring and enforcement was presented by consumers as a method to activate traceability system. The implications from the traceability systems of major countries can be summarized as the obligatory implementation of cattle and beef traceability system, self-regulating implementation of the systems for the items other than cattle and beef, emphasis on the possibility of record tracing as the purpose of traceability system, and system development and guideline establishment as the role of government for voluntary implementation items. The direction for the implementation of traceability system for agricultural food was set to make the system consistent with international standards and to aim for the activation of traceability system by clearly setting the purpose of the system. Direct purpose of traceability system is to secure the possibility of tracing pursuant to records and management by step, and items such as providing information to consumers or efficient control of products and quality can be selectively stipulated as additional purposes. It is desirable to implement the traceability system for agricultural foods by categorizing the system into two different structures of the expansion of base for record tracing and the improvement of traceability system. For the expansion of base for record tracing, it is necessary to adopt legislative adjustments for the supplementation of the regulations concerning recording and documenting throughout the process of food transactions. Traceability system for agricultural products, fisheries products and processed foods requires the review on the legislative integration of pertinent regulations while, on a short-term, supplementing the provisions of regulations to make linkage between systems and making adjustments by system for the contradictory provisions related to terminology, items for indication, method of indication and management. In order to improve traceability systems which are currently implemented either on obligatory or voluntary basis, actions for the improvement of operating method, the reinforcement of linkage and the creation of base for the system should be taken. Obligatory object items should be decided considering the level of concern, the possibility of changing country of origin and socio-cultural importance, and the priority of review.

(10) vii should be given in the order of pork and byproducts of cattle. In the case of beef which is being implemented on obligation basis, it will be necessary to expand the scope of coverage to food service area, but it should be approached at the level of making transaction records obligation requiring the indication of country of origin only to consumers. For the items such as milk, egg and meat processed products, ground provisions should be prepared so that traceability system can be implemented voluntarily. In the case of the traceability system which is subject to voluntary implementation, applicable companies have to introduce on voluntary basis for quality control or marketing purpose while government plays a role for giving guideline and supporting in terms of system development and supply. In order to ensure efficient implementation of traceability system, it is necessary to reinforce the linkage between the system. For the system for beef which is implemented on obligation basis, the management works between domestic beef and imported beef should be linked each other. For traceability system for agricultural, fisheries and processed foods, it is necessary to review the integration of laws and systems, interaction between system and cooperative system for post management. And also it is necessary to actively implement publicity to consumers to secure consumers' awareness and accessibility through the integration of homepages of traceability systems. Researchers: Lee Kyei-Im, Hwang Yun-Jae, Woo Byung-Joon, Cho So-Hyun and Jeong Se-Mi Research period: 2011. 5. - 2011. 11. E-mail address: lkilki@krei.re.kr.

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(12) ix. 차. 례. 제1장 서 론 1. 연구의 필요성 ······························································································· 1 2. 연구 목적 ······································································································ 2 3. 국내외 연구동향 ··························································································· 3 4. 연구의 내용 ··································································································· 7 5. 연구 범위 ······································································································ 8 6. 연구 방법 ······································································································ 8 7. 연구추진체계 ······························································································· 11 제2장 농식품 이력관리제도 추진 배경과 동향 1. 식품 위해요인의 증가 ················································································ 12 2. 소비자의 식품 안전에 대한 관심과 불신 증가 ······································ 15 3. 국제적 추세에 적절 대응 ·········································································· 16 4. 농식품 이력제도 추진동향 ········································································ 18 제3장 농식품 이력관리제도의 운영 평가 1. 농식품 이력관리 관련 법률의 품목별 분산 ············································ 40 2. 농식품 이력관리의 목적 불분명 ······························································· 43 3. 농식품 이력관리 규정 불일치 ··································································· 48 4. 이력관리제도의 비효율적 운영 ································································· 54 5. 농식품 이력관리제도의 참여 부족 ··························································· 62 6. 농식품 이력관리제도 기반 조성 미흡 ····················································· 64.

(13) x 제4장 이력관리제도 운영 관련 소비자 평가 1. 식품 구입 시 고려요인 ·············································································· 66 2. 이력관리제도 도입의 필요성 ···································································· 68 3. 이력관리정보 이용현황 ·············································································· 70 4. 소비자의 이력관리제도 평가 ···································································· 77 제5장 주요 국가별 이력관리제도 운영실태 조사 1. 호주 ·············································································································· 84 2. 일본 ·············································································································· 94 3. EU ·············································································································· 118 4. 시사점 ········································································································ 137 제6장 국내 농식품 이력관리체계 활성화 방안 1. 농식품 이력관리체계의 추진방향 ··························································· 141 2. 이력관리제도의 목적 재정립 ·································································· 143 3. 이력관리 추진체계 전환 ·········································································· 145 4. 이력관리체계 활성화를 위한 법률 개정 검토 ······································ 146 5. 이력관리제도 운영방식 개선 ·································································· 150 6. 이력관리제도의 연계 강화 ······································································ 156 7. 이력관리체계 기반 조성 ·········································································· 160 제7장 요약 및 결론 1. 연구결과의 요약 ······················································································· 162 2. 결론 및 정책시사점 ·················································································· 170 부록 1. 돼지고기 이력관리제도 도입 방안 ··················································· 173 부록 2. 일본의 우유 이력관리 도입 현황과 사례 ········································ 186.

(14) xi 부록 3. 일본의 계란 이력관리 도입 사례 ····················································· 210 부록 4. 일본의 외식산업 이력관리 가이드라인 ············································ 223 부록 5. 일본의 외식산업(쇠고기) 이력관리 가이드라인 ······························ 246 부록 6. 농식품 이력관리체계의 효율적 운영을 위한 식품 안전사고 대응 훈련 추진 방안 ··············································· 266 참고 문헌 ··········································································································· 289.

(15) xii. 표 차 례. 제1장 표 1- 1. 간담회 개최 일정 ·········································································· 10 제2장 표 2- 1. 농식품 위해관련 사건 발생 실태 ················································ 14 표 2- 2. 섭취장소별 식중독 발생 현황 ······················································ 15 표 2- 3. 농식품 이력관리제도 추진 현황 ·················································· 19 표 2- 4. 연도별 이력추적관리제도 등록 현황 ·········································· 21 표 2- 5. 작물 분류별 이력추적관리 등록 현황(2010년) ·························· 21 표 2- 6. 농산물 이력추적관리 단계별 추진체계 ······································· 23 표 2- 7. 이력추적관리 농산물에 대한 사후관리 실적 ····························· 24 표 2- 8. 수산물 이력추적관리제도 참여 현황(2011. 6. 30 기준) ··········· 26 표 2- 9. 수산물 품목별 이력추적관리 등록 현황(2011. 6. 30 기준) ····· 26 표 2-10. 수산물 이력추적관리 단계별 추진체계 ······································· 28 표 2-11. 수산물 이력추적관리제도 사후관리 조사 실적 (2011. 10) ······ 29 표 2-12. 식품 이력추적관리제도의 추진체계 ············································ 31 표 2-13. 국내산 쇠고기 이력관리 단계별 추진체계 ································· 35 표 2-14. 수입 쇠고기 이력추적관리 단계별 추진체계 ····························· 36 표 2-15. 수입 쇠고기 이력관리의 전자적 거래 신고 단계별 적용 내용 ·································································································· 37 표 2-16. 쇠고기 이력관리제도 시행 관련자료 ·········································· 38 표 2-17. 수입 쇠고기 이력관리의 전자적 거래신고 대상 영업자 현황 조사 ·································································································· 38 표 2-18. 국내산 쇠고기 이력관리제도 지원별 단속 실적 ······················· 39.

(16) xiii 제3장 표 3- 1. 이력관리의 용어 및 정의 ····························································· 44 표 3- 2. 농식품 이력추적정보 의무 기재 규정 ········································ 45 표 3- 3. 농식품 이력추적정보 의무기재 사항 ·········································· 46 표 3- 4. 농식품 이력관리제도별 표시방법 비교 ······································· 49 표 3- 5. 이력추적관리번호 부여 방법 ························································ 51 표 3- 6. 이력관리 관련 법률의 벌칙규정 비교 ········································ 53 표 3- 7. 이력관리제도의 운영주체 ····························································· 55 표 3- 8. 쇠고기 이력관리제도 운영 비교 ·················································· 57 표 3- 9. 제도별 이력관리제도의 중점단계 비교 ······································· 58 표 3-10. 농산물 이력관리시스템의 지방자치단체 구축사례(2011년) ····· 61 표 3-11. 이력관리제도의 사후관리 현황 ···················································· 64 제4장 표 4- 1. 식품 구입 시 우선 고려사항 ························································ 67 표 4- 2. 소비자의 식품 관련 정보 문의 방법 ·········································· 68 표 4- 3. 이력관리정보 확인 이유 ······························································· 73 표 4- 4. 이력관리 정보를 만족하지 않은 이유 ········································ 74 표 4- 5. 이력정보 찾지 않은 이유 ····························································· 74 표 4- 6. 쇠고기 이력관리제품 신뢰정도 ···················································· 76 표 4- 7. 이력관리제도의 추진방향 평가 ···················································· 78 표 4- 8. 향후 이력관리제품 구입 의향 ······················································ 79 표 4- 9. 이력관리제품의 추가지불의향 ······················································ 80 표 4-10. 품목별 적정 이력관리 방식 평가 ················································ 81 표 4-11. 품목별 이력관리 목적 평가 ························································· 82.

(17) xiv 제5장 표 5- 1. 호주의 관련 주체별 역할 ································································· 86 표 5- 2. 호주의 소 이력추적시스템 개체식별체계 ······································ 87 표 5- 3. 호주의 단계별 이동신고 내용 ························································· 87 표 5- 4. 일본의 품목별·업태별 이력추적시스템 도입 가이드라인 책정현황 ····························································································· 95 표 5- 5. 이력추적체계에 관련된 일본 국내법률 ·········································· 96 표 5- 6. 일본의 쇠고기 이력제도 추진체계 및 주요 업무 ························· 97 표 5- 7. 일본의 가축개량센터 관리 정보 ····················································· 98 표 5- 8. 일본의 식별대상 소‧쇠고기 ····························································· 99 표 5- 9. 일본의 소·쇠고기 이력제도 대상 업종‧사업자 ····························· 99 표 5-10. 일본의 소·쇠고기 이력제도 단계별 조치사항 ······························· 99 표 5-11. 일본의 소·쇠고기 이력제도 각종 신고방법과 가능사항 ············ 100 표 5-12. 일본의 쌀 이력추적제도 대상품목 ················································ 102 표 5-13. 일본의 쌀 이력제도 산지기록의 주의점 ······································ 103 표 5-14. 일본의 쌀 이력제도 반출·반입 등의 기록 사항 ························· 104 표 5-15. 일본의 수산물 이력추적 도입 사례 ·············································· 106 표 5-16. 벳카이쵸 낙농·유제품 이력추적시스템의 기록 정보 항목 ········ 109 표 5-17. RTA 분야별 명칭과 적용 품목 ····················································· 125 표 5-18. 주요 국가별 이력추적제도 실시현황 ············································ 138 제6장 표 6- 1. 일본의 ‘유비쿼터스 식품 안전·안심시스템 개발사업’ 추진내용 ··························································································· 155 표 6- 2. 생산단계 등록정보 비교 ································································· 158.

(18) xv. 그 림 차 례. 제1장 그림 1- 1. 추진체계도 ·················································································· 11 제2장 그림 2- 1. 식료품비 중 외식비 지출비중 변화 ········································ 13 그림 2- 2. 농식품 수입현황 ········································································· 13 그림 2- 3. 도시민의 식생활 불만족 요인 ·················································· 16 그림 2- 4. 농산물 이력추적관리시스템의 구성도 ····································· 22 제3장 그림 3- 1. 농식품 이력관리 관련 법률규정 현황 ····································· 41 그림 3- 2. 농식품 이력추적관리 체계 ························································ 56 그림 3- 3. 농식품의 유통단계별 이력관리 대상 ······································· 59 제4장 그림 4- 1. 소비자의 식품 안심을 위한 노력 ············································ 67 그림 4- 2. 품목별 식품사고 위험과 수입산 둔갑 가능성 평가 ·············· 69 그림 4- 3. 소비자의 품목별 이력제도 도입 필요성 평가 ························ 69 그림 4- 4. 소비자 특성별 이력제도 도입 필요성 평가 ··························· 70 그림 4- 5. 이력관리제도 인지 여부 및 경로 ············································ 71 그림 4- 6. 이력관리정보 찾아본 경험 ························································ 72 그림 4- 7. 이력관리정보 확인 방법 ··························································· 72 그림 4- 8. 이력관리 정보 만족도 ······························································· 73 그림 4- 9. 이력추적관리 마크와 이력번호를 본 경험 ····························· 75.

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