상단 PDF The Advantage of the Thromboaspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Mortality analysis of subtypes in acute ischemic stroke

Mortality analysis of subtypes in acute ischemic stroke

1 KoreanRe, 2 Design hospital Hyeyun Ahn, FLMI, FALU 1 , Kwang-il Park, MD, PhD, FLMI 1 , Sinhyung Lee, MD, FLMI 2 ■ ABSTRACT Worldwide, stroke is the 2nd or 3rd leading cause of death and a major health problem. Recent advances in medical technology have significantly improved diagnosis and treatment strategies of ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke subtype is an important determinant of mortality and long-term prognosis of patients. To estimate excess-risks of the ischemic stroke subtype, recently published article, Korean cohort study of stroke, was used as a source article.
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Carotidynia presenting with acute ischemic stroke after carotid sinus massage

Carotidynia presenting with acute ischemic stroke after carotid sinus massage

1H). She was discharged with no specific neurologic or clini- cal symptoms on day 20 after admission. DISCUSSION Dissection of the carotid artery might show an intimal flap and double lumen, but carotid artery dissection accom- panied by inflammation of vessel wall and its surrounding tissues has not been well characterized. In the present case, the crescent-shape of the irregular enhancement on the carotid wall and perivascular tissues was suggestive of ca- rotidynia. Neuroimaging findings of a double lumen in the carotid artery might have been due to secondary dissection associated with inflammatory changes. We diagnosed the present case as carotidynia based on the criteria of the In- ternational Headache Society (IHS). 1 In addition, the patient had three other specific findings that are unusual among the well-known characteristics of carotidynia.
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Impact of temporary opening using a stent retriever on clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

Impact of temporary opening using a stent retriever on clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

patients who achieved final reperfusion were enrolled in the study, and other important vari- ables that may affect the outcome were adjusted, we believe that temporary opening improved clinical outcome. Second, as the choice of ERT modality was not randomized, there is a possi- bility of confounding bias. However, treatment allocation was mainly decided by specific time and the baselines characteristics between the patients with temporary opening and those with- out were comparable except for the initial occlusion site. Multivariate analysis was also per- formed to adjust for confounding variables. Third, the time dependent decrease of reperfusion benefit in patients without temporary opening and the beneficial effect of temporary opening in patients with good collaterals had the borderline of statistical significance. It may attribute to relatively small sample size of this study. Finally, this study was retrospective analysis of sin- gle center data. Inevitable limitations with the study design should be considered when inter- preting the study results.
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Change in blood pressure variability in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its effect on early neurologic outcome

Change in blood pressure variability in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its effect on early neurologic outcome

reduced arterial reflexes, and behavioral and emotional responses.[12] These features of high BPV would demonstrate the detrimental effect on stroke prognosis. There are several limitations. First, this study was retrospectively conducted using a single hospital database, and had a risk of bias. However, our subjects were consecutively identified from a prospective stroke registry and large amounts of BP data would increase the statistical power. Second, this study only showed an association between BPV and END on a daily basis, and could not explain a causal relationship. Because we aimed to identify the course and impact of short-term BPV, a different study design and more precise analytic tools are needed.
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Range of glucose as a glycemic variability and 3-month outcome in diabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke

Range of glucose as a glycemic variability and 3-month outcome in diabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke

We collected all capillary glucose data during hospital admission. Several studies suggested that glucose excursions in the acute period are more important than those in the chronic period, when evaluating clinical outcomes [41,42]. However, post-stroke hyperglycemia could develop more than 48 hours after symptom onset [38]. Hypoglycemia may develop during the chronic period as iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to the persistent use of anti-diabetic treatment or the relative paucity of glucose monitoring during this period. The glucose range reflects the fluctuations in the entire glucose profile in a simple manner. Moreover, the glucose range is easier to calculate and use to make clinical decisions, as compared to the SD or CV of the glu- cose values. In fact, a reduction in the glucose range by 10 points is more intuitive as compared to a reduction of 10% in the SD or CV of the glucose values. In this perspectives, reducing range of glucose during hospital admission might be effective management strategy in reduc- ing the development of hypoglycemia and in finally improving functional outcomes in patients with an acute ischemic stroke.
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CHA2DS2-VASc score in acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation: results from the Clinical Research Collaboration for Stroke in Korea

CHA2DS2-VASc score in acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation: results from the Clinical Research Collaboration for Stroke in Korea

However, the main limitations for studying the effectiveness of OAC + AP treatment in contemporary cohorts of AIS and AF patients are the major selection bias for which it can be only partly adjusted, since there will be measured and unmeasured confounders related to why these patients were taking OAC + AP in the first place. Nonetheless, in a recent study, an analysis restricted to patients with AF and ipsilateral stroke with significant large artery stenosis, not complete occlusion, showed that OAC + AP was less likely to be associated with 3-month vascular events than OAC alone (weighted HR 0.25 [0.07–0.89]) 17 . Therefore, the results should be interpreted with caution and limited to a hypothesis generation function. These findings, however, suggest that future trials Table 4. Association of OAC vs OAC + AP with primary outcome according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score subgroup. *Adjusted variables: age, NIHSS scores, dyslipidemia, smoking, prior anticoagulant use, prior statin use, prior antihypertensive use, prior antidiabetic use, LAD, glucose, SBP, LDL-cholesterol, multiple lesions, reperfusion therapy, stroke mechanism, CHA2DS2-VASc score. a Weighted Cox proportional hazards model with robust standard errors.
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Timing of initiation of oral anticoagulants in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation comparing posterior and anterior circulation strokes

Timing of initiation of oral anticoagulants in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation comparing posterior and anterior circulation strokes

Our study has several limitations. First, due to the non-randomised nature of the study, our results may be influenced by several confounders including a selection bias for treatment, even if adjusted statistical models were used in the attempt to control them. Second, a central adjudication of the outcome events was not performed but rather, these events were assessed by the local investigators. Third, in observational studies it is not possible to adjust for physician biases associ- ated with prescription of oral anticoagulant timings and agents. Another potentially important factor is the difference in time period between posterior strokes and anterior strokes; the former being recent and the latter being from previously published studies with enrolment before 2014 (the RAF and RAF-DOAC studies). There could therefore be important secular trends accounting for different event rates (e.g. changes in NOAC use), improved general stroke care (e.g. pos- sibly less bridging) or different OAT timing. In fact, regarding changes in oral anticoagulant type use, in the posterior stroke population, which was more recently collected, 66% of the patients were treated with NOACs compared to 55% of the patients in the anterior stroke population. Conversely, 27% of the patients with anterior stroke were treated with warfa- rin, compared to 19% of the patients in the posterior stroke population.
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Clinical predictors of seizure recurrence after the first post-ischemic stroke seizure

Clinical predictors of seizure recurrence after the first post-ischemic stroke seizure

Therefore, early and late PSSi groups were compared in this study. Different prognostic factors including seizure recurrence rate are regarded as a reflection of underlying pathomechanism associated with the en- during predisposition. Early seizures are thought to result from acute disruption of brain integrity, meta- bolic homeostasis, and excitatory glutamate release, leading to secondary neuronal injury and electrically irritable tissue. In contrast, late seizures are related to neuronal circuit reorganization by aberrant gliosis and development of hyperexcitable cicatrix, eventually resulting in spontaneous seizures [23, 36]. We hy- pothesized that clinical characteristics of PSSi patients might reflect the epileptogenic predisposition of post- stroke brain. Our results suggested that different epi- lepsy pathogenesis might be involved in early and late PSSi because the adjusted ORs of recurrence related factors did not match each other.
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Therapeutic hypothermia after recanalization in acute ischemic stroke patients: Analyses of multicenter, consecutively-enrolled, observational, retrospective endovascular treatment registry (ASIAN-KR)

Therapeutic hypothermia after recanalization in acute ischemic stroke patients: Analyses of multicenter, consecutively-enrolled, observational, retrospective endovascular treatment registry (ASIAN-KR)

‘malignant MCA infarction’. Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is associated with a dismal prognosis regardless of maximum intensive care and timely carrying decompressive hemicranietomy. Due to evolution of treatment modality about EVT, the treatment direction to reduce reperfusion injury has come to a new horizon. After recanalization, reperfusion injury, which is expressed by edema and hemorrhagic transformation occurs, and several medical therapies that minimize such neuronal damage have been studied. One of them is a therapeutic hypothermia, and there are not many studies that have been verified as a multi-center trial. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular recanalization therapy. We also investigated the therapeutic hypothermia effect in subgroups that included only malignant MCA infarct patients.
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Hypothermia inhibits the propagation of acute ischemic injury by inhibiting HMGB1

Hypothermia inhibits the propagation of acute ischemic injury by inhibiting HMGB1

Although middle cerebral artery occlusion increases the expression of interleukin-1 β and tissue necrosis factor- α, this elevation is suppressed by both hypothermia and glycyrrhizin treatment. We show that hypothermia reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines and helps salvage peri-infarct regions from the propagation of ischemic injury via HMGB1 blockade. In addition to suggesting a potential mechanism for hypothermia ’s therapeutic effects, our results suggest HMGB1 modulation may lengthen the therapeutic window for stroke treatments.
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Antiplatelet therapy within 24 hours of tPA: lessons learned from patients requiring combined thrombectomy and stenting for acute ischemic stroke

Antiplatelet therapy within 24 hours of tPA: lessons learned from patients requiring combined thrombectomy and stenting for acute ischemic stroke

DISCUSSION In this series of consecutive post-tPA/MT plus stenting patients receiving early antiplatelet therapy, there were zero instances of symptomatic ICH. In the absence of widely-accepted treatment guidelines for patients with tandem occlusions or refractory intracranial stenosis and AIS, there is ongoing debate for the role of acute stenting in this population due to the potentially increased risk of ICH with requisite antiplatelets, 3)6)13)16)40) especially in pa- tients that received prior tPA. Antiplatelet strategies by those advocating stenting in this setting typically involve pre- or peri-procedural dual oral antiplatelet or intrave- nous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor loading followed by maintenance therapies, 4)13)34) although holding antiplate- lets for 24 hours after tPA despite stent placement has also been described. 22) This latter approach likely derives from the current stroke guidelines that advise against the administration of antiplatelets within 24 hours of tPA, 33) and are based on RCTs that demonstrated increased ICH risk without improved outcomes for the early admin- istration of aspirin after tPA. 41) However, these studies did not account for the increased thrombotic risk in patients undergoing MT or stent placement, a consider- ation highlighted by the in-stent thrombosis seen in the one patient in this study that had delayed initiation of post-procedural antiplatelets. While stent placement in our patient sample provided a compelling rationale for expedited post-tPA/MT antiplatelet initiation, 10)16) this population is also an effective proxy for assessing the theoretical safety of early post-tPA/MT antiplatelet use in non-stented patients at high risk for re-occlusion (i.e., those with large vessel occlusions from ICAD versus embolic disease, elevated platelets, and residual embolic
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Infected cardiac myxoma presenting as an acute stroke in the emergency department

Infected cardiac myxoma presenting as an acute stroke in the emergency department

However thrombolytic therapy might not be helpful, if the vascular obstruction is not related with the thrombus. Physicians who care the patients with acute ischemic stroke must evaluate not only bleeding events and thrombogenic risk factors, but also the other obstructing causes except thrombus. We experienced a patient who was afflicted with the infected embolic myxoma.

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Factors associated with improvement or decline in cognitive function after an ischemic stroke in Korea: the Korean stroke cohort for functioning and rehabilitation (KOSCO) study

Factors associated with improvement or decline in cognitive function after an ischemic stroke in Korea: the Korean stroke cohort for functioning and rehabilitation (KOSCO) study

a review of medical records upon the first admission. Survey items included demographic data and presence of cerebrovascular risk factors using standardized, struc- tured questionnaires. The items were classified accord- ing to the current guidelines of the American Heart Association [21]. Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index [22]. Initial stroke severity was recorded at the time of hospital arrival using the Korean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (K- NIHSS) for ischemic strokes [23]. Physical examin- ation findings and laboratory measures were also re- corded. The course of the disease during admission was documented including information on medication use, treatments such as intravenous or arterial thrombolysis, and complications. Patients that re- ceived rehabilitation at 3 months were transferred to the rehabilitation center to initiate active rehabilita- tion after acute management at the neuroscience cen- ter. The remaining patients that did not receive any rehabilitation treatments were discharged or trans- ferred to other hospitals instead of being transferred to the Rehabilitation Medicine Department.
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Clinical characteristics with or without retrieved thrombus in hyperacute ischemic stroke: a histopathological evaluation

Clinical characteristics with or without retrieved thrombus in hyperacute ischemic stroke: a histopathological evaluation

21 ischemic stroke. (O'Gara et al., 2013) Therefore, primary percutaneous coronary intervention was recommended than IVT in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To find the factors related with RBC ratio, we arranged the patients with available thrombi according to the RBC ratio. Consequently, we analyzed clinical and radiological characteristics among the patients divided into three groups according to the RBC ratio. As the RBC ratio increased, the proportion of patients with vessel signs and symptomatic hemorrhage increased. There was a tendency of good response to IVT related with increase of RBC ratio. Clinical outcome at 3 months was worse with increase of RBC ratio, related with symptomatic hemorrhage. RBC dominance was related with vessel signs on imaging studies and might be related with symptomatic hemorrhage. This is line with previous studies, and worse outcome in patients with vessel signs is generally accepted. (Qureshi et al., 2006) Even the response to IVT was more prevalent in RBC-dominant group, considering clinical outcome and symptomatic hemorrhage, the use of IVT should be cautious in patients with vessel signs.
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Rivaroxaban vs warfarin sodium in the ultra-early period after atrial fibrillation–related mild ischemic stroke: A randomized clinical trial

Rivaroxaban vs warfarin sodium in the ultra-early period after atrial fibrillation–related mild ischemic stroke: A randomized clinical trial

A recent European practical guide recommends the “1-3- 6-12 day rule” for the initiation of NOACs after transient ische- mic attack or acute ischemic stroke. 16 However, the recom- mendations are based on expert opinion and are not supported by clinical trial data. An analysis of the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) database found that the early ini- tiation of anticoagulants (2-3 days after stroke) was associ- ated with substantially fewer recurrent events during the fol- lowing weeks without an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages. 17 However, the finding is subject to substantial confounding by indication. In a prospective ob- servational study that enrolled 1029 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and known or newly diagnosed AF with- out contraindications to anticoagulation, compared with ini- tiation of treatment before 4 days or more than 14 days after stroke onset, initiation of anticoagulants within 4 to 14 days of stroke onset was associated with a significant reduction in the composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack, sympto- matic systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracranial bleeding within 90 days from acute stroke. 18 In a recent small, prospective observational study of 60 pa- tients initiating rivaroxaban at a median time of 3 days after mild to moderate cardioembolic stroke or transient ischemic attack, no patient developed symptomatic hemorrhagic trans- formation, and 8 patients had asymptomatic new hemor- rhagic transformation or worsening of hemorrhagic transfor- mation on results of follow-up MRI obtained 7 days after initiation of rivaroxaban, suggesting the safety of rivaroxa- ban treatment in the acute stage. 19 Our findings support the recommendations and are generally in accordance with the findings of the earlier observational studies.
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Differential impact of white matter hyperintensities on long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients with large artery atherosclerosis

Differential impact of white matter hyperintensities on long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients with large artery atherosclerosis

Materials and methods Patients and evaluation The study subjects were drawn from consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who had been registered in the prospective stroke registry from January 2001 to June 2007. During admission, all patients with cerebral infarction within 7 days after symptom onset were thor- oughly investigated. Patients were evaluated with angiography, 12-lead electrocardiography, chest x-ray, lipid profile and standard blood tests. Transesophageal echocardiography, trans- thoracic echocardiography, heart CT, Holter monitoring and continuous EKG monitoring in stroke unit were also performed. Among the study patients, 388 (72.1%) patients underwent continuous EKG monitoring and 246 (45.7%) patients underwent echocardiography. More detailed information about etiologic evaluations of the patients was described in S1 Table.
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Distal hyperintense vessels on FLAIR: an MRI marker for collateral circulation in acute stroke?

Distal hyperintense vessels on FLAIR: an MRI marker for collateral circulation in acute stroke?

Proximal HV, which is frequently observed prox- imal to or within the Sylvian fissure, may have differ- ent implications in comparison to distal HV. In contrast to distal HV, 92% of patients with proximal MCA occlusion had proximal HV, regardless of the initial ischemic lesion volume, lesion volume pro- gression, and clinical severity. Proximal HV was not a useful prognostic indicator in this study. Proximal HV may be used as a marker for arterial occlusion, presumably the result of the thrombus inside the ar- terial lumen. 4,7 Distal HV is more likely related to either slow, anterograde flow at the site of the occlu- sion or retrograde collateral flow from arteries unaf- fected by occlusion, both having a relative delay in transit time with the latter owing to a more circui- tous route of delivery. In patients with similar perfu- sion lesion volumes, prominent distal HV may provide a mechanism for discriminating tissue kept viable for extended periods by way of a well- developed collateral network from tissue rapidly evolving as the result of marginalized flow distal to the site of the occlusion.
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Plasma Klotho concentration is associated with the presence, burden and progression of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

Plasma Klotho concentration is associated with the presence, burden and progression of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

This study had limitations. We did not investigate blood samples from the general popula- tion. However, the main goals of our study were to demonstrate the association of the pres- ence, burden, and progression of cerebral SVD. Second, all of our blood samples and brain image findings were acquired from patients with acute stroke at the time of admission. There- fore, we were unable to investigate serial changes in Klotho concentration and progression in cerebral SVD findings of brain MRI. Third, we did not perform lumbar puncture for CSF study, although Klotho which is present in choroid plexus might be good to test for association Klotho with cerebral SVD. The reason was because lumbar puncture for CSF study was risky procedure in acute ischemic stroke patients because patients was taking medication including anti-thrombotic agent.
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Neuroprotective effect of the water extract of Angelicae Gigantis Radix Palva in ischemic stroke rats

Neuroprotective effect of the water extract of Angelicae Gigantis Radix Palva in ischemic stroke rats

Effect of Angelica gigas radix palva water extract on the brain-blood barrier permeability changes induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.. The section[r]

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Non-cardioembolic risk factors in atrial fibrillation-associated ischemic stroke.

Non-cardioembolic risk factors in atrial fibrillation-associated ischemic stroke.

Limitations Our study has some limitations. First, this study is subject to all of the limitations inherent to a retrospective analysis. Second, we only included a selective group of patients with NVAF and ischemic stroke who underwent all following examinations; TEE, cardiac CT, carotid duplex sonography, and brain imaging. This retrospective non-consecutive inclusion has inherent risk of selection bias. Therefore, the findings of our study cannot be generalized to the entire NVAF population with ischemic stroke. However, the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score distribution of non-consecutively enrolled AF patients with stroke in this study was similar to that of consecu- tively enrolled AF patients with stroke in the previously published Yonsei Stroke Registry data of the same institution (S1 Fig) [31]. Third, we investigated only a limited number of CE and non-CE risk factors, which may not be representative of the total burden of risk. Fourth, it is unclear whether non-CE risk factors in high risk NVAF patients are associated phenomenon or have causal result relationship with stroke event because it was difficult to classify the mech- anisms of stroke, CE or non-CE, in many patients.
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