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2019년은 전 세계 평균기온이 역대 두 번째로 높게 나타나 유럽에서는 폭염으로 수천명의 인명피해가 발생하고, 7월 알래스카 인근 해빙면적이 관측사상 가장 작아지는 등 세계 곳곳에서 이상기상으로 인한 피해가 나타났습니다. 해가 갈수록 기후변화로 인한 위기가 일상화됨에 따라 2020 세계경제포럼(다보스포럼)에서도 기후변화 이슈는 정치, 경제, 사회, 문화 등 모든 영역을 아 우르는 핵심의제로 격상되었습니다.

우리나라도 2018년 관측역사상 가장 더운 여름을 보냈고, 이듬해인 2019년에는 1973년 이후 가장 따뜻한 겨울을 보냈습니다. 우리는 앞으로도 지구 온난화로 인한 이례적인 기상기록을 많이 마주하게 될 것이며, 불확실성이 높은 극한기상현상은 더욱 빈번하게 우리를 찾아올 것입니다. 이 러한 기상기후 위기 속에서 국민들이 안심하고 안전한 생활을 영위하기 위해서는 더욱 상세한 예 보와 다양한 맞춤형 기상정보가 필요합니다. 특히 국민생활에 영향이 큰 폭염과 한파에 대한 대응을 위 해 2019년 폭염영향예보 서비스를 시작으로, 2020년에는 한파영향예보 정식서비스를 시작할 계 획이며, 1・3개월 장기예보에서도 폭염과 한파에 대한 극한 기온정보를 함께 제공할 계획입니다.

2019년에는 근대 기상업무(1904년)를 시작한 이래 가장 많은 7개의 태풍이 우리나라에 영향을 주었습니다. 연이은 태풍으로 우리나라에 피해가 예상됨에 따라 태풍분석과 예보역량을 집중하기 위해 위성, 레이더, 태풍 등 분야별 전문가를 중심으로 태풍특별대응반을 운영하여 정확도 높은 태 풍정보를 생산하고자 노력하였습니다. 또한, 소통 전담조직(소통TF팀)을 통해 기상정보를 누구나 이 해하기 쉽게 가공하여 언론 및 방재관련 유관기관에 신속하게 제공하고, 국민이 편리하게 이용할 수 있도록 기상청 누리집 날씨누리를 전면 개편하는 등 국민과의 소통을 강화하기 위해 최선을 다하였습니다.

1904년 일본중앙기상대 임시관측소(부산 등 5개소) 설치로 시작된 근대기상은 한동안 외국의 기상 관측장비와 수치예측모델에 의존하였으나, 1999년 슈퍼컴퓨터 도입을 시작으로 2010년 천리안위성 발사, 2011년 기상관측선 취항, 2017년 기상항공기 도입, 2018년 천리안위성 2A호 발사와 작년 2분 간격의 고품질 위성영상 서비스 개시에 이르기까지, 기상기술 자립을 위해 끊임없는 노력을 해왔습니다. 그 리고 9년간의 노력 끝에 2019년에는 우리나라 자체기술로 한국형수치예보모델을 개발하여, 2020년 4 월부터 현업에서 활용되고 있으며 이로써 기상선진국으로 도약하기 위한 초석을 다지게 되었습니다.

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P R E F A C E

또한, 산업정보사회에서 지능사회로의 패러다임 전환과 빠르게 확산되고 있는 미래과학기술에 대응하고자 기상청은 2019년 7월 벤처형 조직인 인공지능예보연구팀을 신설하였고, 빅데이터를 분석・

활용하여 예보관의 신속한 예보 의사결정을 지원하는 인공지능 프로그램 ‘알파웨더’를 개발하기 위한 기반을 마련하였습니다. 한편 2018년 국내 기상산업의 매출액이 4,800억 원을 넘어서며, 작은 규모에도 불구하고 매년 꾸준히 성장하고 있습니다. 그중에서도 기상서비스・컨설팅 분야의 상승세가 뚜렷한데, 이는 데이터 경제의 시대에 기상데이터가 가진 무한한 가치를 보여주는 좋은 예라고 하겠습니다.

2019년은 상세히 날씨를 관측하고 정확한 날씨를 예측하는 등 기상청의 기본역량에 집중하고 국민과의 소통을 강화하고자 쉼없이 달려온 한 해였습니다. 이를 바탕으로 2020년에는 예측하기 어려운 집중호 우, 예고없이 발생하는 지진 등으로부터 국민을 보호하고 국민이 체감할 수준의 혁신적인 날씨서비스 개 편을 위해 노력하고 있습니다.

매년 기상업무 설명서를 만든다는 생각으로 업무계획을 수립하는데, 기상연감 또한 또 다른 기상 업무 설명서가 되었으면 하는 마음입니다. 발간된 기상연감이 올해 개관을 앞둔 기상박물관에 영원히 남을, 기상청의 역사를 만든 선배님들과 그 역사를 되새길 국민들에게 소중하고 의미 있는 자료가 되길 바랍니다. 마지막으로 기상연감 작성을 위해 애써준 기상가족 여러분들께 감사드립니다.

2020년 6월

기상청장

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Korea Meteorological Administration

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주요정책 및 이슈·············································································

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1. 2019년 주요정책 성과 ·································································2

2. 2019년 우리나라 기후특성 및 이상기후 ······································5

3. 2019년도 주요 뉴스 ·····································································7

기상기술 동향·················································································

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1. 기상기술・정책 전략 ····································································18

2. 기후 ····························································································19

3. 해양 ····························································································20

4. 환경기상 ······················································································21

5. 위험기상/재해 ·············································································22

6. 관측/장비 ····················································································23

7. 응용기상 ······················································································24

8. 수치예보모델 ···············································································25

9. 기상정보화 ··················································································27

분야별 기상정책

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제1장 기상예보····················································································34

1. 예보업무의 제도 개선 ·································································34

2. 방재기상 ······················································································41

3. 예보기술 향상과 예보해설 강화 ··················································46

4. 태풍정보 ······················································································52

5. 영향예보 ······················································································60

6. 수치예보 ······················································································65

제3부 제2부 제1부

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3. 기상정보화 ················································································103

4. 기상슈퍼컴퓨터 운영 ·································································112

5. 기상청 정보보호 관리체계 및 기술적 보안 강화 ······················116

제3장 기후 및 기후변화····································································118

1. 2019년 전 지구 기후특성 ························································118

2. 기후업무의 정책 기반 강화 ······················································123

3. 장기예보 ····················································································126

4. 기후변화감시 및 전망 ·······························································129

5. 수문기상・가뭄・이상기후정보의 제공 ·········································137

6. APEC기후센터 운영 ·································································142

제4장 기상서비스··············································································144

1. 기상청 데이터 관리 및 서비스 ·················································144

2. 기상산업 육성 및 활성화 ··························································149

3. 박물관 건립 및 과학관 운영 ····················································153

4. 기상기후 빅데이터 융합서비스 ··················································156

5. 한국기상산업기술원 운영 ··························································161

제5장 지진감시와 대응·····································································164

1. 지진업무의 제도 개선 ·······························································164

2. 지진・화산 발생현황 ··································································167

3. 지진관측망 및 정보전달 체계 개선 ··········································171

4. 지진・지진해일・화산 연구 ··························································175

제6장 기상위성 및 레이더································································177

1. 기상위성 ····················································································177

2. 기상레이더 ················································································183

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