Results: We examined 114 patients (age; 62.7 ± 16.9 years, 41.7% men) with DVT with/without PE. The prevalence of concurrent DVT with PE was 52.6%. Blood tests showed no difference between the 2 groups. Of all the assessed patients’
characteristics, only infection was significantly and independently associated with PE (P = 0.04). The shortest length between CIA and SB was 6.7 ± 3.5 mm in group I and 11.3 ± 3.7 mm in group II (P < 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that 7.6 mm was the cut-off value for the anatomic riskof PE.
COX-2 selective inhibitor was prescribed in 56.2% of very high riskpatientsand 50.9% of high riskpatients. Only 51% ofpatients at high or very high riskpatients were receiving COX-2 selective inhibitors. Analysis of prescription pattern revealed that only 60% ofpatients with concomitant anticoagulant use, 54% of the patients aged over 65 yr, 52% ofpatients with concurrent aspirin use were prescribed COX-2 selective inhibitor to decrease the riskof developing GI complications. Its prescription rate was even lower in patients with the other GI riskfactors. Comparing two age groups with each GI risk factor, its prescription rate was greater in older aged groups (≥ 65 yr) overall (Table 4).
Five hundred ninety-eight patients with complete re- cords were included in the study. Eight patients with in- complete records were excluded. The demographic andclinicalcharacteristicsof the patients in the study are summarized in Table 1. The mean age of the study sub- jects was 47.13 ± 19.9 years. The age distribution of the study subjects is shown in Fig. 1. Of the 598 patients, 12.9% were diabetic, while 34.1% had other systemic ill- ness such as hypertension or renal disease. Odontogenic infection in our study originated from a pulpal focus in 493 (82.4%) patients; a further 60 odontogenic infections originated in the extraction socket and sites of dental surgery. In 45 patients (7.53%) the origin was non- odontogenic such as jaw fracture, cystic lesions, and osteomyelitis.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patientsand to analyze the riskfactors in these patients using the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) database.
Methods: Among the RA patients in the KORONA who were recruited between July 2009 and December 2011, postmenopausal women with bone mineral density (BMD) results within one year from the time of KORONA enrollment were included in this study. The baseline characteristicsofpatients in three groups, defined by BMD results, were compared. The BMD measurement rates and prevalence of osteoporosis in the study patients were calculated in accordance with age and gender subgroups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between osteoporosis and demographics and disease-related riskfactors.
This study made several findings useful in the treat
ment of IC/BPS patients. First, about 54% ofpatients showed persistent frequency even though pelvic pain improved after conventional therapy. This is the first report on the incidence ofpersistent frequency. Second, patients with low VV, low Qmax, low MBC, and severe frequency in a 3day voiding diary are likely to complain ofpersistent frequency after conventional treatment for IC/BPS. Moreover, baseline frequency was an independent predictive factor for persistent frequency after conventional IC/BPS treatment in multivariate analysis. These findings correlated with another urodynamic study showing that poor bladder function in IC/BPS patients indicated a higher grade of urothelial dysfunction and a less favorable treatment outcome . These findings are important when we begin treatment for IC/BPS, as poor bladder function can be an important indicator ofpersistent frequency. Third, antimuscarinic treatment is not useful to treat persistent frequency, as there was no significant difference in the mean daily frequency before and after medication. There is an overlap of symptoms in IC/BPS and OAB. Therefore, IC/BPS patients were usually prescribed antimuscarinic agents, even though guideline for IC/BPS did not include antimuscarinic medication. Interestingly, animal experiments of IC show that antimuscarinic treatment is not effective for detrusor overactivity in a rat model . Meanwhile, patients who had antimuscarinic treatment showed more severe
PURPOSE. The objective of this study was to determine the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and associated riskfactorsof Implantium implants by retrospective clinical study. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Patients who received Implantium implants (Dentium Co., Seoul, Korea) at Korea University Guro Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were included. The period between the first surgery and the last hospital visit until December 2015 was set as the observation period for this study. Clinical and radiographic data were collected from patient records, including all complications observed during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to examine CSR.
마이코플라스마에 의한 호흡기감염은 학령기 소아에 호발하며, 3세 이전에는 드문 것으로 알려져 있다. 4,5 하지만 최근 연구들에서 는 학령전기 소아에서의 마이코플라스마 폐렴 발병률이 증가하고 있음을 보여주고 있다. 소아 마이코플라스마 폐렴에 대하여 1979년 부터 2006년까지 국내 문헌을 검색하여 보고한 메타분석에서 감 염 나이는 3세 이하가 2,700명(25.8%), 4–6세까지가 4,014명(38.2%), 7세 이상이 3,796명(30%)이었고, 세 군의 비율이 1998년을 전후로 나누었을 때 1998년 이후로 어린 나이에서의 감염 빈도가 증가하 였다 . 6 국내에서 최근 3번의 대유행 기간 동안 발생한 마이코플라스 마 폐렴 환자를 대상으로 한 연구에서 환자의 평균 나이는 5.7세였 Table 4. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for predicting RMPP according to age
A potential important limitation of this study-level data approach is confounding of these estimates by other baseline variables related to future stroke risk in AF, including age, history of stroke, concurrent aspirin use, timing of starting oral anticoagulation after the baseline acute stroke, patient adherence to anticoagulation, and time in range. In addition, data on stroke severity and functional status at baseline were not available, although patients were fit enough to undergo MRI, were discharged on oral anticoagu- lation, and were to be followed up clinically. Despite our best efforts to adjust for certain available con- founding factors in meta-regression analyses, this is unlikely to have accounted for the full range of inter- actions between different variables. Hence, the pres- ent analyses do not adequately account for potential confounding by vascular riskfactors or other varia- bles. None of the included cohorts were specifically designed to answer the specific questions explored in the present analysis. Moreover, all cohorts used clinical data, introducing some bias, and data were not collected with same accuracy or did not include the full range of covariates as research data. However, all studies showed a consistent direction of association between CMBs and ICH risk. Further stratified anal- yses are needed to explore the riskof future stroke and CMBs in Asian vs non-Asian patientsand according to anticoagulation strategy, e.g., warfarin vs NOACs.
Statistical analyses were performed using com- mercially available computer software; SPSS 18.0 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Values are expressed as means ± standard deviations or as percentages (%). Parameter differences among the 4 groups were evaluated using one-way ANOVAs. For post hoc analysisof normally dis- tributed variables, Tukey's b tests were used. For post hoc analysisof non-normally distributed vari- ables, Bonferroni corrected Mann–Whitney U -tests were used. For comparison of categorical varia- bles, Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests were used, as appropriate. Multivariate logistic re- gression analyses related with MHT and SHT was performed after adjustment for clinical variables.
either of these TNF antagonists from June 2003 to January 2014 were included in this study. Information regarding clinicaland demographic characteristics such as sex, age of IBD diagnosis, disease duration, anti-TNF drug exposure period, location and behavior of CD, and extent of UC were obtained from medical records. For the riskfactors for TB, diabetes mellitus (DM), previous TB infection, latent TB infection (LTBI), concomitant immunosuppressant at the start of anti- TNF therapy, and WBC count measured around the last follow-up day were recorded. When active TB infection developed after anti-TNF therapy, WBC counts at the time of TB diagnosis were counted. However, history regarding contact with active TB patients was not obtained. The study was approved by the ethics review committee of the Institutional Review Board of all of the hospitals participating in the study.
In conclusion, VAIN is at high-riskof recurrence and progression, but the progression to vaginal cancer was limited to VAIN3/CIS cases (3.2%). The riskfactors for recurrence and progression included treatment type and high-risk HPV positivity. Both laser ablation and excision therapy demonstrated relatively high regression rates compared to observation and topical management. However, laser ablation seemed to be better for multifocal lesions, whereas excision might be more suitable for high-grade unifocal lesions, especially when the occult stromal invasion is suspected. Whatever the treatment method is used, lifetime surveillance is recommended.
tient’s risk. It may aid in better clinical decision-making than individual predictors obtained from a regression model .
Several studies have used the data mining approach to identify factors associated with disease prevention and man- agement. Some studies have identified factors associated with postoperative recovery , smoking cessation failure , or a low-risk population for type 2 diabetes  using a decision tree. Raju et al.  and Lee et al.  explored factors related to PUs using a hospital database. These stud- ies showed that the data mining approach used in a manner similar to decision tree analysis is a simple tool for predict- ing riskfactors . However, there is still a lack of studies that explore factors associated with PUs with a number of variables, including patient characteristicsand administra- tive information.
Purpose: There are limited data on the epidemiological andclinicalcharacteristicsand outcomes in Korean patients with labora- tory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the epidemiological andclinicalcharacteristicsand out- comes ofpatients with COVID-19 using the Korean nationwide multicenter database.
Methods: In this nationwide multicenter study, we included all confirmed patientsof COVID-19 in South Korea from February 1 to April 30, 2020. Subjects were classified into 3 age groups: those at younger than 10 years (children), 10 to 20 years (adolescents), and 20 years or more (adults). Cases were confirmed by laboratory testing using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reac- tion assay and analyzed for epidemiological andclinical features and outcomes. Patents were followed up until April 30, 2020.
0.035) and added 3.8-fold probability to the evolution of GC and therefore, warrant consideration and evaluation via robust studies. 11,12,19,22,23
Leukocytosis was another significant risk factor for GC (p=0.003), and 95% of GC patients had a leukocyte count greater than 10,000/mm 3 . The study of the variable pro- vides favorable 1,18 and unfavorable 19,21,22 evidence. However, the differences in the definition of leukocytosis between the studies are the most important aspects. Thus, if leuko- cytosis is defined as a leukocyte count above 10,000/mm 3 , results may vary from studies involving definitions with counts above 13,000/mm 3 . These definitions require stand- ardization as well. 22
Consistent with the study by List et al., 13 infiltration anesthesia reduced pain more than topical anesthe- sia, though the degree of response varied by patient.
Pain derived from the pulp, i.e., from the tooth itself, requires anesthesia of the nerves of affected teeth, as such pain does not decrease with topical anesthe- sia alone. Continuous pain of the teeth or gums that is responsive to local anesthetics is often found to be neuropathic pain was often. In the current study, anesthesia was the most commonly used diagnostic method. These results indicate that diagnostic anes- thesia is an effective and relatively simple diagnostic method that can be performed at the chair-side and satisfactory for differential diagnosis of IFP.
로 확인되었다(OR, 8.83; 95% CI, 1.38–56.62) (Table 2).
M. pneumoniae에 의한 폐렴은 자연적으로 호전이 되지만 치료 에 반응하지 않는 불응성의 경우는 급성호흡곤란증후군, 괴사성 폐렴 , 전격성폐렴 등의 생명을 위협하는 질환으로 발전될 수 있다. 7 최근 심한 증상을 일으키는 치료 불응성 마이코플라즈마 폐렴의 예가 세계적으로 보고되고 있으며, 7,8,13 아직 기전에 대해서는 명확 하게 밝혀진 바 없으나 일부 연구자들은 마크로라이드계 항생제에 내성을 보이는 M. pneumoniae의 증가와 연관이 있을 것으로 생각 하고 있다. 7 그러나 이러한 가설은 마크로라이드 항생제에 내성을 Table 2. Analysis ofriskfactors on refractory mycoplasma pneumonia patients
Copyright Ⓒ 2011 by The Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Korean Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery ∙ pISSN: 1738-6349
Acute cholecystitis is one common cause of acute abdomen. It is associated with moderate to high severity due to its clinical potential to develop pyogenic chol- ecystitis, which may result in gallbladder necrosis, perfo- ration, abscess or even peritonitis. In the elderly, the se- verity of acute cholecystitis increases immensely; thus, it is crucial to determine proper treatment times and methods. Despite its clinical significance, however, we still lack knowledge of predisposing factorsand co-mor- bidities that may influence disease development and progression. Commonly known riskfactors have been found mostly in epidemiologic studies, the reliability of which has often been questioned because different results were shown in different studies.
demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of SSI from 32%
to 18% with the standardization in suturing, drain removal and surgical dressing management. Finally, it should be pointed out that there is a higher incidence of infections after renal surgery in comparison with transurethral surgery. Although a laparoscopy approach is frequently performed, open surgery is required in some cases. HAIs after renal surgery are more frequently after an open approach. Currently, open approach is indicated in patients with a complex surgery, and it is associated with riskfactors for HAIs such as higher amount of bleeding, longer operating time, longer hospitalization and in some cases, a contaminated surgical filed . Moreover, although urinary catheter is removed earlier after renal surgery than in transurethral surgery, drainage is usually used. Therefore, it is necessary to remove all drainages as soon as possible, and the management of the wound must be optimized.
In accordance with the result of most studies, we confirmed that the 3-year RFS in patients with KRAS mutations was significantly lower than that in patients without KRAS mutations in our large patient cohort [18,21,24]. Wegman et al.  found that among patients treated with definitive chemoradiation, those harboring mutant KRAS had significantly worse recurrence-free survival than those with wild-type KRAS (p=0.030). Our cohort ofpatients underwent surgery-based multimodal treatment, and disease recurrence outside of the pelvis was the primary recurrence pattern. Wegman et al.  reported that there was a significant association between KRAS mutation and distant metastases but not local recurrence, which is consistent with our previous findings. In clinic, the finding of the association between KRAS mutation and worse 3-year RFS suggests that detection of KRAS mutation could be used as a prognostic marker. Close follow-up is needed in those patients with KRAS mutation for early detection of recurrence. In addition to conventional adjuvant therapy, such as concurrent chemoradiation and systemic chemotherapy, further management might be considered in patients with KRAS mutation to prevent from recurrence. Novel therapy is needed to be identified including KRAS-targeted therapy.
II. Materials and Methods
This research was conducted on patients who underwent mesiodens extraction at Chosun University Dental Hospital between January 2009 and September 2013. All patients were examined clinically and radiologically and were assessed in terms of gender, age, main reason for the visit to the hospital, effects on permanent incisors, shape of the supernumerary tooth, and presence of dentigerous cysts. In all patients, me- siodenses were extracted surgically. A comparative analysis was carried out between these data and the results of research published in 2003 4 .