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Promoting Urban Regeneration in the Era of Population Decline

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1. Background

U

rban policies that have focused on development are reaching their limits, due to low growth, low birth rate, and an aging society. In the development era, urban policies have focused on supplying facilities and sites needed for economic activities. Based on these policies, large-scale cities and industrial complexes were established in suburban areas. However, as the economy has entered the era of an advanced country with low growth, quantitative expansion-centered urban development is causing various problems, such as environmental degradation, an increase in urban management costs, and a decrease in urban vitality.

With the advent of this aged and low-growth era, a new strategy for urban policy is required. A creative urban regeneration strategy that responds to the demands of the new economy and preserves the community, while the historicity and vitality of urban areas are boosted, is necessary for this era. It is required in today’s urban economy to find new value in the urban area, rather than large-scale industrial complexes and newly built-up areas in the suburbs. The industries play pivotal roles for the urban economy at present, such as creative industry, cutting-edge manufacturing industry, and knowledge-based services, which are all operated in urban areas. Now is the time to turn from the conventional urban policy centered on physical development into a new urban regeneration plan that preserves the historicity of urban area and boosts creativity.

2. Urban Decline and Policy Issues

Our cities are no longer in the era of growth. On a national scale, cities are on the decline due to population outflow and industrial decline. According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (2014), 65% of all 3,470 units of Eup, Myeon, and Dong, 2,239 units (Figure1), are on the decline nationwide. The definition of declining areas is an area that is under the standard in equal to or more than two

Promoting Urban Regeneration in the Era of Population Decline

Park Sehoon

SPACE &

ENVIRONMENT

Space & Environment is a quarterly magazine published by KRIHS. Its purpose is to introduce current issues on territorial planning in Korea and disseminate research achievements and international activities of KRIHS and other Korean institutes.

ISSUES & TRENDS

Promoting Urban Regeneration in the Era of Population Decline 01 Improving the Urban Living

Environment for Senior Citizens 05 Transportation Policies

in the Era of Aging 10

IN-DEPTH LOOK

Enhancement of the International Competitiveness of Metropolitan Cities 15 GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP NEWS 19

ISSUES & TRENDS 01

Vol. 64 December 2015

Gazette

Gazette

KRIHS (Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements) was established in 1978 with a mission of creating a beautiful and pleasant living environment. To achieve the mission, KRIHS has been committed to enhancing the quality of life and well-being of the people in the nation with its spatial planning studies and policy suggestions.

Since its foundation, KRIHS has carried out a variety of studies on the efficient use, development, and conservation of territorial resources. Its research areas range from sustainable and balanced territorial development and conservation of the territory to the provision of housing and infrastructure.

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indexes, such as population decrease, business decrease, and building dilapidation.

Urban decline causes the degradation of the quality of urban life, decrease of investment, and a decrease of employment. The declined urban areas, where many vacant deserted houses are located, can easily become crime-prone areas and are vulnerable to disasters, as the infrastructure is poor.

Since the 1970s, urban decline has been considered to be a national issue, and active urban regeneration policies have been implemented abroad. In the United Kingdom, the Policy for Inner Cities was established in 1977, and the direction of urban policy was changed from the conventional new city development to the creation of the inner city. Since the 1970s, in the United States, the direction of policies has been turned into the community development of existing urban areas, in order to address the issues of excessive urban sprawling. Meanwhile, Japan revised its policies to restore the vitality of urban areas after the collapse of the bubble economy, and it enacted the Special Act for Urban Regeneration (2002) and the City Center Vitalization Act (1998).

In Korea, the Special Act on the Promotion and Support of Urban Regeneration was legislated in 2013 to respond to the issues of urban decline and the decrease of the urban population. The authorities in Korea are designating pilot areas for urban regeneration and are providing necessary budget, as part of the national urban regeneration policy. However, most urban policies are still following the practices of the development era. Many local autonomies are still establishing and executing urban policies that focuse on developing the outskirts of a city by assuming population growth. Urban maintenance projects, such as redevelopment and realignment, are being implemented, focusing on profitability, rather than the preservation of local identity. Considering this situation, we will now take a look at desirable policy directions for the vitalization of urban regeneration.

Source The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.

2014. Studies for Establishing Basic Guidelines for National Urban Regeneration Projects

Incheon

Daejeon Daegu

Gwangju

Jeju

Busan

Ulsan Seoul

Figure 1. Urban decline status in Korea

1)

Areas that satisfy 3 indicators : 1,208 Areas that satisfy 2 indicators : 1,031 Areas that satisfy 1 indicator : 766

Total 2,239

① Population: 20% or more of the current population has decreased compared to the highest point of the population over the recent 30 years. Or, the size of the population has shrunk for 3 consecutive years out of the recent 5 years.

② Industry: 5% or more of the current number of businesses has decreased compared to the highest number of businesses over the last decade. Or, the number of businesses has decreased for 3 consecutive years out of the recent 5 years.

③ Deteoriorated buildings: 50% or more of all buildings were built at least 20 years ago.

1) As the result of comparing the size of the population, the number of businesses, and the percentage of deteriorated buildings, 2,239 (65 percent) out of 3,470 Eup, Myeon, and Dong are declining (corresponding to two or more indicators).

Three indicators in accordance with Article 20 of Urban egeneration

Special Act

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3. Policy Directions for Urban Regeneration Boosting new economy in declining cities

First, it is necessary to control new developments on the outskirts and to induce the comprehensive use and development of the inner city. The usage demand for central business districts in the city is high. Therefore, the area needs to be utilized in a more sophisticated way with functions of central business, residence, arcades, and cutting-edge industrial facilities. In particular, the areas where the floating population is concentrated, such as station adjacent areas, should be developed into a public transportation-oriented zone which would increase the development density. At the same time, the important infrastructure of cities, such as public offices, big arcades, and hospitals, need to be located in the existing downtown area first.

The dilapidated industrial complex, which has been the driving force of the urban economy, needs to be fostered as the hub for a new industry by improving the working environment and the living environment. It is also needed to replace and convert outdated industrial functions, enhance infrastructure, restructure space, and induce the simultaneous occurrence of an inflow of workforce and networking. An innovative urban space can be creative not only by physical improvement for the environment but also by the comprehensive complexation of supporting facilities, residential facilities, and commercial and business facilities.

Lastly, it is necessary to build attractive culture cities by utilizing the unique assets of the area, such as modern industrial heritage and the Hanok, the traditional Korean house. There are non-operating industrial spaces and public spaces in declining cities.

In new urban policies, these non-operating resources need to be creatively utilized.

These assets should be the foundation for establishing a unique urban landscape and need to be transformed as residential infrastructure and a place for culture and leisure that can be enjoyed by citizens in their everyday lives.

Community-initiated neighborhood revitalization

To cope with the trends of low growth and population decrease, urban policies should be transformed from their conventional framework of maintenance that focuses on physical repair into the vitalization of communities. Physical restoring the environment is important too, however, a social and economic project should be implemented together with it to execute a comprehensive and gradual approach.

To this end, it is necessary to increase cooperation between groups inside and outside the region, such as the local autonomy, the central government, supportive organizations, experts, and civic groups. In particular, the competence of citizens should be enhanced to realize urban regeneration led by residents. This is the reason that education programs for residents provided by urban regeneration colleges need to be expanded, and practical education programs from merchant colleges and educational programs on how to set up a business need to be utilized to strengthen the competence of small-scale merchants in declining business areas with regard to their abilities to plan and set up a business. In addition, urban regeneration experts in various fields who can induce residents’ participation should be fostered, and a group of experts who support on-site urban regeneration should be created and operated.

On the other hand, social economy organizations can play a pivotal role in vitalizing

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local communities in which residents participate. The social economy organizations can contribute to the urban regeneration by supporting economic independence, expanding social services, and boosting the activities of communities. Support systems, including social corporations, village corporations, independent companies, and cooperative associations that are being implemented by different governmental agency, need to be utilized, however, an effort to connect these systems with actual local societies need to be exerted.

Building an area-based integrated support system

It is critical to have an area-based integrated support system to vitalize urban regeneration. Generally, the support projects of the governmental agencies are classified by sector. Focusing on local areas, however, it is necessary to integrate and connect economic, social, cultural, and welfare policies. Currently, the government is trying to seek measures to comprehensively support the urban regeneration pilot areas in accordance with the Special Act on the Promotion and Support of Urban Regeneration. The examples are the local community job creation project by the Ministry of the Interior, the cultural facility expansion and operation project by the Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, the kids’ facility support project by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the project to establish distribution infrastructure for small and medium-sized enterprises and conventional markets by the Small and Medium Business Administration. Through these integrated supports, inefficiency caused by the dispersed investments of the governmental agencies should be addressed, and the regeneration effect of cities in decline should be maximized.

For an integrated support system, the local autonomies and the central government should be actively taken into account. At present, unfortunately, there are many cases of policy implementation without coordination between the involved departments of urban engineering, culture, and welfare, at local autonomies. To play a role to integrate the policies of the central government, each department of the local authorities should integrate their efforts in advance.

Park Sehoon Research Fellow, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements shpark@krihs.re.kr

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Park Sehoon Research Fellow, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements shpark@krihs.re.kr

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ISSUES & TRENDS 02

Improving the Urban Living Environment for Senior Citizens

Kim Sunhee

1. Demographic Changes and Change in Senior Citizens’

Demand for the Use of Space

W

hen a society ages, the way of consumption and the use of space will change. Based on ageing level, the needs for urban policies in large cities, small and medium-sized cities, and rural areas will be different.

Urban spatial structures will be modified in a way that focuses more on medical, health, and welfare facilities beneficial to elderly citizens. Housing, transportation, and urban facilities will also be altered in a more convenient way to the elderly.

In large cities, families live together and senior citizens have many opportunities to find jobs to cover their living expenses. Medical and service functions for the elderly are also gathered in big cities. Therefore, many senior citizens are concentrated in urban areas, and this phenomenon is called a “Silver Tsunami”. In effect, many senior citizens prefer living in urban areas and many silver towns are located in urban areas.

In the case of small and medium-sized cities, meanwhile, for the more elderly, more preferred adjacent areas of Seoul or local areas, refraining from living in Seoul. In particular, 44.2% of Baby Boomers who participated in a survey answered they would live in small and medium-sized cities near their current residence after retirement.1) The reasons were as follows: the surrounding area has a good natural environment; hospitals and other convenient facilities are close; the real estate price is low; and they can live with their children. By moving into small and medium-sized cities adjacent to the metropolitan area, they can save money and use it as living costs after retirement.

Due to the low birth rate and ageing, the doughnut phenomenon has been deepening in rural areas: the number of one-person or two-person households in the elderly is increasing, while the number of elderly citizens who live alone is growing.

In the Myeon units in rural area, the ratio of one-person households composed of persons aged 65 or older is continuously growing from 57.1% in 2005 to 58.0% in 2010. With the increasing case of the ratio of the elderly living alone in households exceeding 30% of all residents of a town, the need for expanding common facilities for the elderly and establishing a rural transportation model is growing.2)

1) Samsung Life Insurance Retirement Institute.

2011. Survey Conducted for 2000 Residents of Seoul and Other Metropolitan Cities

2) The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. January 13, 2015.

Three-year Plan for Economic Innovation (Ⅰ), Happy Agricultural Village Creation Report

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Table 1. Types of Ageing and Policy Needs

Classification Policy Needs

Population Ageing

Young elderly (aged 65-74,

“third phase” of life)

• Providing information about villages of returned elderly people and villages of retirees

•Establishing age-friendly cities (housing, transportation, etc.)

•Expanding healthcare and leisure facilities

•Creating living areas focusing on medical functions

•Supporting their participation in education, work, and social sectors

Old elderly (aged 75+,“fourth phase” of life)

•Community-based comprehensive care system

•Living support and nursing homes

Community Ageing

Large cities

•Reshaping large cities into age-friendly cities

•Designing age-friendly standard homes

•Expanding mixed-generation facilities (e.g. parks)

Small and medium-sized cities

•Establishing rental houses for senior citizens

•Improving medical and healthcare functions

•Creating demand responsive transport(DRT)

Rural areas

•Renewing elderly residential environment

•Increasing common elderly facilities

•Enhancing settlement of returned elderly people

2. Directions for Improving the Urban Environment to Become Age-friendly

Due to the low birth rate and ageing, the elderly population has increased. The average age of Koreans has increased from 23.1 in the 1960s to 39.8 in 2014. It is expected to reach 53.5 in 2060. In response to an ageing population and social structure changes, it is time to modify city plans and policies and urban spatial structures to become more age-friendly.

Creating age-friendly cities and medical welfare towns to improve the quality of the lives of the elderly

Usually, elderly people want to stay in the town they have been living in, because of familiar access to medical and healthcare services and contact with family and neighbors. This is a worldwide universal phenomenon called “Ageing In Place (AIP)”.

To support AIP, it is necessary to establish an age-friendly city to make “communities easy to live in and places familiar”. To this end, the friendliness levels towards the elderly of the existing cities should be diagnosed. Housing, transportation, medical, healthcare, and leisure facilities need to be concentrated in a walkable distance for the convenience of the elderly. It is necessary to create a healthy and happy place by making more parks and open spaces, increasing accessibility, and enhancing the exchanges and contacts of all generations.

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As the number of elementary school students has decreased from 5.7 million in the 1980s to 3 million in 2014 due to the low fertility rate, an increasing number of classrooms are becoming vacant in elementary schools and more schools are shutting down. Given this situation, the center of the residential area needs to be transformed from elementary schools to medical centers. Vacant schools and classrooms can be used to increase social exchanges between children and the elderly. Empty shops can be used as elderly exchange enhancement cafes, citizen exchange enhancement places, or health check facilities. Pedestrian streets and public transportation systems can be modified in a more pleasant and convenient way to provide senior citizens with access to medical, welfare, social, and construction facilities. In addition, it will also be possible to plan elderly care service centers and operate them with local communities.

Promoting residential stability and supplying age-friendly houses

It is also important to come up with measures to supply barrier-free houses to promote residential stability for the elderly. Age-friendly houses need to be supplied to help the elderly continuously stay in the place where they have lived for a long time, even when they are physically weak or disabled due to ageing. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the residential environment of the elderly, especially in rural areas where the number of elderly households is increasing, by improving residential environment and increasing the number of common elderly facilities.

Measures to set up guidelines for designing barrier-free standard elderly homes and measures to remodel the existing houses into age-friendly houses are also needed.

Establishing barrier-free healthy and safe cities and residential areas for senior citizens

To make the everyday lives of physically-challenged people (the elderly, the under-aged, the handicapped, and pregnant women) safe and convenient, living environment service facilities need to be modified by connecting standard design assisted living, residence, and a medical welfare system. Physical and social policies, such as a “Lifetime Neighborhood” policy that promotes the comfortable living environment of all age groups, need to be combined and linked by introducing standard design in urban public spaces, transportation and commercial facilities, and parks. It is also necessary to establish home-based IT devices equipped with sensors to protect the health and safety of the elderly and old people who live alone.

Expanding public, commercial, and cultural spaces for the elderly

Leisure and living service facilities need to be expanded to ensure the pleasant and convenient lives of the elderly. Facilities with combined commercial and medical welfare functions also need to be expanded to help the elderly easily access to hospitals, stores, sports centers, libraries, and parks. To this end, a pedestrian network needs to be created near medical welfare and preventive care centers to help the elderly have a safe, secure, and pleasant life.

To open an era of health and longevity for the elderly, streets, parks, and shops senior citizens can visit to enjoy themselves need to be made, and their access to

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these places should be enhanced. For this, relevant policies to foster silver industries and improve the urban environment need to be implemented.

Establishing lively communities for retired Baby Boomers and supporting their migration

The issue of the ageing society is no longer a crisis. Rather, it is an opportunity to create a silver industry for the active silver. It is desirable to vitalize the silver industry in the urban and housing construction sector through the construction of silver towns and communities for retirees.

Under the slogan of “Smart Retirement”, the private sector and volunteers can construct a well-tailored town for retirees. In this town, they can make a customized urban community, which combines elderly houses, medical care centers, leisure and sports facilities, and parks, to contribute to strengthening a city’s brand values and securing social capital.

Note The comprehensive care system includes daily life areas where all necessary services can be provided within 30 minutes.

Figure 1. Community-based comprehensive care system

Hospital

Comprehensive care community center

Seniors club, community association, NGO, etc.

Nursing home

•Outpatient, inpatient

•Outpatient, inpatient

•Care and supervision

•Living environment

•Preventive care service

•Home care Service

•Living assistance, preventive care

•Home care service

3. Conclusion: Age-friendly Urban Policies Are Needed for an Ageing Society

As of 2014, the ratio of the elderly in Korea stands at 12.7%, and it is anticipated to reach 19.5% in 2020 and 29.9% in 2030. The ageing level is fairly different by region, and 45% of the 230 local autonomies have entered into an aged society (7%

or higher amount of the population is 65 years old or older) and 32% (in units of Shi, Gun, Gu) have already entered a super-aged society (20% or higher amount of the population is 65 years old or older).3)

While the ageing of the urban population is taking place at a fast pace, small and medium-sized cities and rural areas are ageing even faster.

3) Based on the registered population at the National Statistics Office, made for 230 local autonomies

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Ageing issues can be categorized into population ageing and community ageing.

Policies to address ageing issues should be different based on the ageing level of the population and the ageing characteristics of a community, because policy needs will be different according to the ageing level and characteristics. However, Korea’s measures in regard to ageing issues led by the Ministry of Health and Welfare has focused on population ageing and welfare benefits. The departments in charge of urban and local policies do not recognize the importance of community ageing issues, and they are still implementing the urban policies that are based on the rapid economic development and population growth from the past. Due to the mismatch between the needs of the people and the supply of the government, the quality of the people’s lives is deteriorating. It is now necessary to revise urban policies and urban spatial structures in a more age-friendly way while focusing on the ageing phenomenon in communities.

Kim Sunhee Senior Research Fellow, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements shkim@krihs.re.kr

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1. Background

F

irst, we need to enhance transportation safety policies for the elderly. Korea’s transportation system is focused on middle-aged people who are physically active. This is the reason that the system lacks support for the elderly.

Although the ratio of the population aged 65 and older stands at 12.2%, they count for 36.0% of traffic accident fatalities and the ratio is actually increasing annually.

With the growing number of elderly drivers, traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers are also increasing annually.

Transportation Policies in the Era of Aging

Kim Joonki

Source e-national index. www.index.go.kr

Figure 1. Size of population aged 65 and over and number of deaths in traffic accidents

6,400,000 7,000

6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

15.0% 100.0%

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

14.0%

13.0%

12.0%

11.0%

10.0%

6,200,000 6,000,000 5,800,000 5,600,000 5,400,000 5,200,000 5,000,000 4,800,000 4,600,000

2009

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

Travel/Person Travel/Person

Commute to

work Working Shopping Others Returning home 0.50

0.60 0.70

2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

10.6%

0.09 0.04 0.04 0.060.09 0.31

0.40 0.42 0.61

0.16

31.3% 31.8% 33.0% 34.6% 36.0%

Number of people aged 65+

Total death toll

2006

Number of deaths aged 65+

Ratio of deaths aged 65+

Ratio of people aged 65+

10.9%

11.2%

11.7%

12.2%

Number of people

2010 2006 2010

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

0.22 0.41

0.24 0.32 0.32

0.09 0.10 0.01 0.01

0.08 0.13 0.36

Walk Car Bus Subway/

Railway Taxi Others

Second, transportation policies to increase the mobility of the elderly are needed to improve the quality of their lives. Compared to their predecessors living in previous times, senior citizens today are highly dependent on their own vehicles, and their frequency of travel is also increasing. In response to the increasing number of elderly drivers, road facility modification and appropriate education that consider the physical characteristics of the elderly are required. It is important to increase the access of the elderly to public transportation, as it is anticipated that the elderly would prefer the public transportation to their own vehicles due to their physical restrictions.

Third, the characteristics of seniors’ travel and the gaps between regions in terms of transportation systems need to be taken into account when implementing region- tailored transportation policies. In urban areas, the public transportation system is well-maintained compared to rural areas. Therefore, it is important to secure access to public transportation. On the other hand, rural areas have relatively vulnerable public transportation systems, given the transportation means and the number of

(a) Number and ratio of people aged 65+ (b) Number of deaths in traffic accidents & Number of deaths aged 65+ in traffic accidents

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transportation services. Worse yet, there is practically no special transportation for the transportation vulnerable. Therefore, the authorities need to come up with measures to tackle the problems.

2. Current Situation and Tasks

First, it is important to establish policies preparing for the aging society, taking the characteristics of the elderly into account. It is estimated that the travel demands of the elderly will not decrease and the use of public transportation will be higher than personal vehicles, due to physical restrictions. As the number of elderly drivers is gradually increasing, however, the maintenance of road installations and relevant education appropriate for the physical characteristics of the elderly are required.

Second, the improvement should be made systematically based on the traveling pattern of the elderly. The most important prerequisite for the convenient traveling of the elderly is the barrier-free ambulation network accessing the public transportation and the barrier-free use of public transportation. Through analyzing the traveling pattern of the aged, a well-tailored transportation policy that the characteristics of the elderly traveling are taken into account should be implemented.

Third, as there are regional gaps in the characteristics of the traveling of the elderly and the traffic system, the one-size-fits-all policies should be improved. In urban areas, the public transportation system is well-established compared to rural areas.

Therefore, it is important to secure access to public transportation. On the other hand, however, rural areas lack public transportation in terms of the means and number of traveling, and there are literally no special transportation means for the transportation vulnerable. Therefore, a concentrated measure to address these issues needs to be set up.

6,400,000 7,000

6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

15.0% 100.0%

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

14.0%

13.0%

12.0%

11.0%

10.0%

6,200,000 6,000,000 5,800,000 5,600,000 5,400,000 5,200,000 5,000,000 4,800,000 4,600,000

2009

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

Travel/Person Travel/Person

Commute to

work Working Shopping Others Returning home 0.50

0.60 0.70

2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

10.6%

0.09 0.04 0.04 0.060.09 0.31

0.40 0.42 0.61

0.16

31.3% 31.8% 33.0% 34.6% 36.0%

Number of people aged 65+

Total death toll

2006

Number of deaths aged 65+

Ratio of deaths aged 65+

Ratio of people aged 65+

10.9%

11.2%

11.7%

12.2%

Number of people

2010 2006 2010

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

0.22 0.41

0.24 0.32 0.32

0.09 0.10 0.01 0.01

0.08 0.13 0.36

Walk Car Bus Subway/

Railway Taxi Others

Figure 2. Comparison of travel features of the elderly: 2006 vs. 2010

(a) Change in the purpose of the travel by the elderly (b) Change in travel methods by the elderly

3. Conclusion and Response Safety policies for the elderly

First, the driving license system needs to be revised so that it would separate the elderly drivers who are unsuitable for driving in terms of mental and physical status

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Figure 3. Exclusive parking lots for the transportation vulnerable

(a) Yangju City Government (b) North Gyeonggi-do Government Source

Yangju City Government website www.yangju.

go.kr, Gyeonggi-do Internet News http://www.

ginnews.kr

and therefore have a high chance of accidents. Back in 2000, the ratio of the licensed stood at 1.6% in the elderly population (3.39 million). However, it is predicted that 2.3 million (8.1%) out of 7.07 million of the elderly population will hold driving licenses in 2018. Due to the recent amendment of the traffic laws (June 8, 2011), elderly drivers aged 70 and older have to regularly take an aptitude test held every five years, regardless of license types. However, given that mental and physical competence differs even among the same elderly people, various driver training programs for the elderly and the medical criteria, other than the one-size-fits-all regular test, need to be established to distinguish elderly drivers from others.

Second, safety education designed for elderly drivers should be enhanced. It is required to develop education programs that can assess the physical and mental capacity to drive and recognize the requirements of elderly drivers. At the same time, the authorities should review the agenda to make the attachment of the indication of an elderly driver, which can induce the tolerance of other drivers, mandatory.

Third, “elderly parking lots” are necessary. As of now, there are parking lots exclusively provided for the physically challenged and pregnant women. The agenda to install parking lots for elderly people needs to be reviewed.

Fourth, as plenty of elderly people use public transportation, a regular education program for senior citizens’ safety in using public transportation needs to be conducted.

<Parking lot system for senior citizens in Japan>

• When there is a shortage of parking lots in facilities that are frequently visited by old people, such as public offices, welfare facilities for the elderly, facilities for the handicapped, and hospitals, exclusive parking lots are designated for elderly drivers in an adjacent road. This system was introduced on April 19, 2010 through the amendment of the traffic law.

• The elderly aged 70 and older, the deaf, the handicapped, pregnant women, and women in postnatal care (within 8 weeks after delivery) are allowed to park in the exclusive parking lots.

• A vehicle registration certificate issued by the police should be attached on the front window of the car in order to park in the exclusive parking lots.

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Figure 4. Concept and application of village taxis

Source

Chosun Ilbo Website. http://srchdb1.chosun.com/

pdf/i_service/pdf_ReadBody.jsp?Y=2014&M=03&D

=20&ID=2014032000118

Enhancement of elderly convenience in using public transportation and improvement of pedestrian environment

The supply of low floor buses in urban areas and the supply of village taxes in rural area should be expanded. In order to increase the supply of low floor buses, the height of bus stops should be lowered so that the elderly can get on a bus. Therefore, the improvement of bus stop structures should be completed. In order to increase the supply of the village taxi (it is called Hope Taxi in some areas), the subsidy system for the taxi operator should be refined.

The installation of barrier-free facilities where the elderly can easily access and the designation of pedestrian priority zone should be completed.

Introduction of special transportation designed for physically- challenged elderly people

So-called “Call Taxi” service, which allows a user to make a phone call to a cab company and it sends a cab to the location of the user, for the handicapped should be available for the elderly as well. In order to secure sufficient call taxis for the handicapped, the local autonomies need to support a certain amount of the fare.

<Busan Jabi Call>

• This is a call taxi system for the handicapped in Busan that was introduced in April 2013 to utilize the existing general call taxis, in order to solve the problem of a lack of vehicles of the “Duribal” call taxi for the handicapped in Busan. The physically challenged as well as the mentally challenged can use the Jabi call taxi.

•When a handicapped person registered in the city of Busan uses the taxi, he/she can pay only 35% of the taxi fare and the rest is paid out by the city government. As of June 2013, there were 1,290 taxis designated as a Jabi call taxi. (Call taxis for the handicapped in Busan total more than 200.)

Expansion of ITS utilization to improve transportation convenience of the elderly

In order to assist the physical capabilities of the elderly in terms of their weakened movement and sight as they age, the importance of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) appears to increase continuously. While there are active developments

(a) Concept of Village Taxi (b) Hope Taxi of Seocheon-gun Remote area

Village taxi Regular route bus Bus Stop

Bus Stop Eup

area

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Source 神崎 洋. 2013. 超高 者社 における安心·安全な移

動の 現にむけて

of safety equipment for drivers, it is necessary to accelerate the research and development of safety devices for the elderly.

In order to apply the ITS to the elderly, a database consisting of the traffic information of the elderly should be built in advance. It would be possible to provide a well-tailored service to the elderly by offering the traffic and pedestrian information that the point of interest of the elderly people is considered.

At the same time, the development of cutting-edge technology, such as a remote supporting system for the elderly by utilizing the ITS, should be facilitated, and the development of well-tailored vehicles that take into account the characteristics of the elderly should be completed.

Kim Joonki Research Fellow, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements kimjoonki@krihs.re.kr

Figure 5. Driving support functions for the elderly

(a) Information on adjacent vehicles provided (b) Information on the existence of pedestrians provided

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IN-DEPTH LOOK

IN-DEPTH LOOK

Enhancement of the International

Competitiveness of Metropolitan Cities

1. Introduction

D

ue to the influences from the low fertility rate and an aging society, it is projected that the Korean population will begin to decrease from 2030.

However, the decrease of the population in metropolitan areas will be even faster than that of other areas. Assuming that the scope of the metropolitan areas is cities with more than 1 million residents, such as Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, and Ulsan, the metropolitan population has been declining since 2011, while the population of non-metropolitan area will decrease from 2034.

If we look at the population status by city, the population of Busan, the second most populated city, began decreasing in 1995, Daegu, the third most populated city, in 2001, and Seoul, the most populated city, in 2009. In other words, the big three cities of Korea have already become shrinking cities.

Lee Dongwoo

The decrease in the population weakens the metropolitan competitiveness by reducing the agglomeration economies. The growth rate of the gross regional domestic product (GRDP) of non-metropolitan areas for the past 8 years (2005-2013) is 5.3% per year, however, that of metropolitan areas is only 4.8%.1)

The weakening of metropolitan competitiveness can even impede national competitiveness. The OECD (2006)2) suggests that metropolitan areas should be strategically fostered for national economic growth. It is because agglomeration economies, differentiation, diversity, and abundant human and physical capital guarantee the competitive edge of the metropolitan cities. To promote the sustainable growth of the national economy under the circumstances that are

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000

0

1970 2011 2030 2034 2040

6000 Unit:10,000

Nationwide 5,216

2,977 2,285

Non-metropolitan area Metropolitan area

Source

Korean Statistical Information Service. 2014.

Estimation for Future Population. http://kosis.kr/

1) Korean Statistical Information Service. Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP)

2) OECD. 2006.

Competitive Cities in the Global Economy

Figure 1. Population status and projections

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December 2015

restricted by the low fertility rate and an aging society, the leading role of the metropolitan cities should be recognized, and the strategies to prevent population decrease and establish agglomeration economies should be devised.

2. Measures to Enhance the International Competitiveness of Metropolitan Cities

Transforming the keynotes of metropolitan policies from growth management to competitiveness strengthening

In spite of the population decrease, the slowing of growth, and other changes in conditions, the growth management policies designed for metropolitan areas remain in Korea. In particular, in the Seoul metropolitan area, the concentration of population and industries has been restrained since the 1980s, with the goal of balanced land development and a decrease in population density. The establishment and expansion of plants, universities, and public offices are regulated in the Seoul metropolitan area.

When it comes to large-scale projects, such as residential area construction, industrial complex construction, and tourist spot construction, plans for large-scale projets should go through the deliberation of the capital region maintenance committee, which is composed of private sector experts and government officials, before implementing the projects. When constructing big business facilities or commercial facilities in Seoul, approximately 5-10% of the total construction costs should be paid as an allocation for densely populated areas.

The first task to enhance the international competitiveness of metropolitans is easing the regulations that suppress the autonomous growth of metropolitans.

According to the OECD report (2006), these kinds of policies certainly lower the competitiveness of the city, however, the growth control of metropolitans does not necessarily lead to the growth of rural areas. The relaxation of regulations should be done step by step considering the influence that the alleviation or abolition of regulations can have on the gap between regions as well as the concentration of population and industries in metropolitan areas while reviewing the fruition of regulations on metropolitans, especially the Seoul metropolitan area. For example, regulations that hinder corporate investments in the establishment and expansion of plants should be eased immediately. In the case of regulations on the foundation and renovation of universities that could possibly be re-concentrated in the Seoul metropolitan area, however, it is desirable to wait until the surrounding conditions are changed, rather than quickly easing such regulations.

Along with this, it will be necessary to review the establishment of the Metropolitan Development Act that is designed for planned fostering of non-Seoul metropolitans.

Given the characteristics of metropolitan areas, the goal needs to be set up in cooperation between the central and local governments. A cooperative action plan based on role allocation should also be implemented.

Introduction of special economic zone to induce global corporations into metropolitans

A special economic zone could be an effective means to enhance metropolitan

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IN-DEPTH LOOK

competitiveness. Since 2012, the U.K. has run the Enterprise Zone system that grants benefits, such as corporate tax reduction and exemption, to companies located in the zone. There are a total of 24 zones in the U.K., including the metropolitan areas of London, Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool. In Japan, the Comprehensive Special Zone for the International Competitiveness System was introduced in 2011 to enhance the global competitiveness of metropolitans. Benefits, such as eased regulations, tax benefits, and financial support, are provided to companies in the special zone. As of now, seven special zones are designated in the big cities of Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, Kitakyushu, Sapporo, and Tsukuba.

Referring to the foreign cases, the government needs to deliberate on the designation of a Creative Special Economic Zone3) to facilitate drawing foreign companies to Korean cities. Tax benefits and other eased regulations in regard to land use, floor area ratio, and building-to-land ratio, should be provided to companies in the zone.

Increasing foreign residents in metropolitans

The ratio of foreign residents in most globally-competitive metropolitans in the world is 20% or higher. However, only 2% of the population in Seoul are foreign residents. The World’s Most Influential Cities selected by Forbes in 20144) shows the ranks of London (1), New York (2), Paris (3), Singapore (4), Tokyo (5), Hong Kong (6), Dubai (7), Beijing (8), Sydney (8), Los Angeles(10), San Francisco (10), Toronto (10), Zurich(13), Frankfurt (14), Houston (14), Amsterdam (16), Seoul (16), Washington D.C. (16), Shanghai (19), Abu Dhabi (20), and Chicago (20). The ratio of foreigners (definition: foreign birthplace) as residents of these 21 cities shows that Seoul (2%) has very few foreigners, along with Tokyo (3%), Beijing (1%), and Shanghai (1%).

Figure 2. Ratio of foreign residents in the World’s Most Influential Cities chosen by Forbes

0 20 40 60 80 100

(%) 37

35 21

43 3

1

40

40 40 30

46 24

25 29

47 2

1

60 21

22

86 1. London

2. New York 3. Paris 4. Singapore 5. Tokyo 6. Hong Kong 7. Dubai 8. Beijing 8. Sydney 10. Los Angele 10. San Francisco 10.Toronto 13.Zurich 14. Frankfurt 14. Houston 16. Amsterdam 16. Seoul 16. Washington D.C.

19. Shanghai 20. Abu Dhabi 20. Chicago

Source

Joel Kotkin. 2014. Size is not the Answer:

The Changing Face of the Global City. Civil Service College of Singapore; Klausova. A.

and C.V. Silva. 2014. Briefing: London Census Profile. Oxford University; The U.S. Census Bureau. 2012. Statistical Abstract of the United States; Wichipedia. http://www.beijingexpat.

com/2014/01/29/beijing-population- economy-and-geography; Tokyo Metropolitan Government. 2010. Tokyo Statistical Yearbook.

The Statistics Korea. 2010. Population Census 3) As of now, there are eight Free Economic Zones

that provide favored status in terms of taxation and regulations to foreign companies in Korea.

However, the purpose of these zones are mainly to invite manufacturing companies, and the location of the zones is away from large cities.

A Creative Economic Zone can be differentiated from the conventional Free Economic Zone if it is located near large cities and focuses on attracting the business management and research and development functions of multinational companies.

4) Joel Kotin. 2014. The World’s Most Influential Cities by Forbes

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December 2015

In order to alleviate the decrease in the domestic population caused by a low fertility rate and aging society, and to enhance the agglomeration economies of metropolitans, attracting diverse foreigners to the big cities of Seoul, Busan, and Daegu is a necessity. There are not many foreigners living in Korea, and most of them are menial workers (33.4%), profession unknown (23.1%), and unemployed (16.0%), and only 7.4% of foreigners in Korea are managers and experts. By nationalities, most of them are Asians — the Korean Chinese (35.6%), Chinese (16.2%), and Vietnamese (10.3%). In order to boost the global competitiveness of metropolitans, human resources with various expertise from diverse countries should to be attracted to Korea.

In particular, foreigners working in creative fields consider the residential environment and the job to be very important. The establishment of foreigner-friendly environment in the residential areas of big cities is a basic requirement. If necessary, it would be recommended to designate the areas preferred by foreigners as a foreigner residential area and manage it intensively.

3. Conclusion

It is necessary to seek an effective use of land, from a long-term perspective, in order to be prepared for the low fertility rate and an aging society. The choice and concentration strategy for land use is definitely in need to yield the maximum results from limited resources, although the deepening of financial conditions is anticipated. For this, the enhancement of the international competitiveness of metropolitans should be conducted first. It is desirable for all government agencies, local autonomies, and various groups to participate in national land planning.

Lee Dongwoo Senior Research Fellow, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements dwlee@krihs.re.kr

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GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP NEWS

Officials of KRIHS and IDB

President Kim Dongju of KRIHS makes comments.

KRIHS Holds Annual Workshop and Meetings with International Organizations

The Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS) held an annual workshop and meetings with international organizations from November 30 to December 4, 2015. Through collaboration projects with major international organizations, such as the World Bank (WB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), KRIHS has been making efforts to share Korea’s experience on land and urban development. It has been holding annual seminars with WB and IDB since 2012 and 2013, respectively, to share knowledge in the fields of city, housing, and infrastructure.

KRIHS held the “KRIHS-WB 4th Annual Workshop on New Paradigm of Korean National Urban Policy” on November 30, 2015. At the opening ceremony, Acting Director Anna Wellenstein of WB delivered an opening address, followed by a welcoming speech by Executive Director Eun Sungsoo of WB and appreciation remarks by Managing Director Chung Ilho of the Global Development Partnership Center (GDPC) of KRIHS. After that, President Kim Dongju of KRIHS introduced Korea’s urban development experience for the last 60 years through his presentation “Urban Policy Evolution of Korea: From Input Driven to Innovation Driven”, and he presented what efforts we should make to address Korea’s major urban issues. Three sessions followed, and they were about metropolitan city management, urban regeneration and redevelopment, and Korea’s experience and challenges in the housing sector. WB also presented and discussed the same topics.

During the closing ceremony, President Kim Dongju wished for the establishment of stronger cooperation between KRIHS and WB through today’s discussions.

KRIHS held the “KRIHS-IDB Urban Workshop” on December 1. During the opening ceremony, Chief Vicente Fretes of the Fiscal Municipal Management (FMM) had opening remarks, and Managing Director Chung Ilho of GDPC had appreciation remarks. After that, President Kim Dongju introduced how we could address major urban problems Latin American countries face through Korea’s experience in addressing urban problems. This workshop, which was in connection with an overseas expert cooperation program jointly held by KRIHS and IDB since June, consisted of various discussions by professionals from the two institutes. The workshop offered a venue to actively discuss how to apply Korea’s development experience in the field of new city, housing, and land to Latin American nations.

KRIHS and WB sought ways to conduct joint research and cooperation projects on December 2. On the next day, KRIHS and IDB committed to each other that they would exchange and share knowledge by improving cooperation projects and checking new projects for the next year.

GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP NEWS

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December 2015

TEL 82-31-380-0429 FAX 82-31-380-0468 E-Mail gazette@krihs.re.kr Website www.krihs.re.kr Publisher Kim Dongju Editor Chung Ilho Assistant Editor Seo Kyongjin

Editorial Committee Lee Hyunju, Nam Kichan, Kim Seongsoo, Hong Saheum, Kim Joonki, Lee Youngjoo, Park Sehoon, Seo Yeonmi, Park Soonup, Park Joon

Copyright © December 2015

Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements 254 Simin-daero Dongan-gu Anyang-si Gyeonggi-do, 14067, Korea

UN-Habitat Program

GDPC Holds a Land and Housing Exchange Program with the World Bank

The Global Development Partnership Center (GDPC) of the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS) provided a land and housing exchange program to government servants from developing nations who were invited in cooperation with the World Bank. As the first one of the two capacity building programs conducted in a joint effort with the World Bank, this program consisted of Korea’s territorial development and management, housing policies, and knowledge and experience on new city development. Altogether, 24 government servants from Sri Lanka, Kenya, Bangladesh, Paraguay, China, Cameroon, and Egypt as well as the World Bank staff participated in the program. Professionals from KRIHS, the Korea Research Institute for Local Administration, and the Korea Land and Housing Corporation shared knowledge. The participants visited useful sites, such as the Incheon Free Economic Zone, the Anyang ITC Center, and the Cheong Gye Cheon Museum. During this program, there was a discussion about how Korea could develop in a short period of time and how to manage land compensation, land ownership, and computerize such information. On December 5, the trainees had the Seoul City Tour and visited the National Museum of Korean Contemporary History. The second capacity building program was conducted for a week under the theme of metro management.

Opening of International Conference “The Future of National Urban Policy”

Jointly hosted by the UN-Habitat, the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS), and the Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT) and jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) and the Incheon Metropolitan City, the international conference “The Future of National Urban Policy” was held for two days from December 14 to 15. This conference was held to seek ways to develop urban policies for global countries, and one of the three hosts was the UN-Habitat, which is an affiliated organization of the United Nations to prevent the slums of large cities and to improve residential environment. About 160 people from 32 countries, including Korea, participated in the conference and engaged in presentations and discussions in various topics. Under the leadership of the UN- Habitat, national urban policies were introduced and various countries’ development experience and cases were shared on December 14. Under the leadership of KRIHS and KICT, smart and green cities were introduced and discussed on the next day. An exhibition about innovative city policies was held together with the conference. After the event, overseas urban policy professionals visited useful sites to take a look at smart cities in Korea.

KRIHS officials and participants of the program

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