(1) Exporter "A" looks for business connections abroad through his/her Commercial Travellers, Chamber of Commerce, Exchange Banks, Business Friends, Business Directories, Internet, etc.
(2) Exporter "A" dispatches to the prospective importers his/her "Trade Circulars", enclosing catalogues and any other necessary information such as business reference.
(3) Importer "B" inquires of the credit standing of the exporter “A” and exporter “A’s” mode of doing business through exporter “A’s” bank references or business references.
(4) From which importer “B” may receive a satisfactory report on the credit and business standing of the firm.
(1) Offeror sends a offer to the Offeree by E-mail.
(2) Offeree makes a counter offer against the firm offer from the Offeror. (3) Offeror makes a new firm offer against the counter offer from the
(4) Offeree accepts the offer by E-mail and sends the order to the Offeror. (5) Exporter "A" and Importer “B” conclude a sales contract providing for
An offer that provides new terms and conditions become a counter offer. However, the offer may limit, change, or add some or all the terms of the original offer. There is no obligation of either party until they agree on a contract, which occurs once the counter offer is accepted.
A counteroffer is conditional. When the seller receives a low offer, the offeree can counter with a price, which he feels it is reasonable. The buyer can either accept that offer or counter again. The seller can counter the offer; however, the offeree does not have to accept it.
For example, a seller wants to sell a vehicle for $20,000. A buyer arrives and offers $15,000 for the vehicle. The offeror provides a counter offer asking for $16,000 with the objective of obtaining a higher price. If the offeree declines, the offeror cannot force the buyer to purchase the vehicle at $15,000, even though the buyer suggested that price.
Once the buyer or offeree accepts a counteroffer, a binding contract is formed, which is enforceable against the seller or offeror. A counter offer is a reply to an original offer, which is greater or less than the original price. This type of offer voids a previous offer and the entity that presented that offer is no longer legally responsible for it.
(1) Importer "B" instructs the issuing bank to issue of a “Documentary Letter of Credit(L/C)” in favor of the Exporter in order to facilitate drawing drafts.
(2) The Issuing Bank issues the documentary letter of credit and asks the advising bank to advice or confirm the documentary letter of credit. (3) Importer "B" notifies Exporter "A" of the L/C issued.
(4) The advising bank notifies the issuance of the L/C to the Exporter “A”. (5) When the Exporter receives a proper L/C, he/she will prepare for
contracted goods. In other words, Exporter “A” buys the ordered goods from the local suppliers usually by Local L/C or credit account. Or Exporter “A” imports raw material from the overseas market in order to make the export goods.
(6) Exporter "A" packs and marks the purchased goods for exportation and makes “Commercial Invoice“, "Packing List“, "Shipping Request“, "Export Declaration”.
(7) Exporter "A" obtains "Certificate of Weight and Measurement" from a Measurer's Company regarding the weight and measurement of the shipping cargo. Exporter "A" obtains "Inspection Certificate" from the Inspection Authorities concerned.
(8) Exporter "A" has to get “Consular Invoice” verified if required and procures “Certificate of Origin”, “Certificate of Health” and other Certificates if required.
(9) Exporter “A” applies for the cargo space to a shipping company. Against Shipping Request (S/R), a "Shipping Order (S/O)" is issued. (10) Exporter "A" tenders to the Customs Authorities a set of "Export
Declaration (E/D)." After the approval of the Export Declaration, an "Export Permit" is granted.
(11) Exporter "A" loads the goods on board the vessel against the tender of the “Shipping Order” and the “Export Permit”.
(12) After the completion of the loading of the cargo, a "Mate's Receipt (M/R)" or "Dock Receipt (D/R)” is issued and Exporter Permit is returned which means the loading had duly been completed.
(13) "Bills of Lading (B/L)" are issued from the shipping company against the tender of M/R or D/R.
(14) Exporter “A” applies marine insurance contract, tendering “Insurance Application” to the insurance company. Against the application, the premium is paid by the exporter when CIP or CIF is used as price terms and “Insurance Policy” or “Insurance Certificate” is issued by the insurance company.
(15) Exporter "A" draws on "Drawee" (i.e. the L/C Issuing Bank) "Documentary Drafts" accompanied by full set of Bill of Lading, the Insurance Policy, the Commercial Invoices and other necessary documents in exact conformity with the terms of the L/C.
(16) Against the presentation of the Documentary Drafts to the Negotiating Bank, Exporter "A" receives the proceeds, the net value of the Bill of Exchange from the Negotiating Bank.
(17) The Negotiating Bank dispatches the Documentary Drafts enclosing the full set of documents to the L/C Issuing Bank.
(18) Exporter “A” dispatches the “Advice of Shipment” to the Importer “B”, enclosing one complete sets of nonnegotiable shipping documents. (19) The L/C Issuing Bank presents the draft to the Importer “B”
(20) Upon the presentation of the draft, Importer “B” pays the bill if it is drawn under at sight or he/she accepts the bill if drawn under Usance.
(21) Against the payment or acceptance of the bill, Importer “B” obtains the shipping documents from the bank.
(22) Importer “B” tenders the B/L endorsed to the shipping company.
(23) Against the tender of the B/L, Importer “B” obtains “Delivery Order(D/O)” from the shipping company.
(24) Importer “B” tenders a set of “Import Declaration (I/D)” together with “Commercial Invoices”, “Certificate of Origin” if required, to the Customs Authorities.
(25) An “Import Permit (I/P)” is granted when the import duties would have been paid if the goods dutiable.
(26) Importer “B” tenders the Import Permit together with D/O usually through the hand of a landing agent or a freight forwarder.
(27) Against D/O, Importer “B” takes delivery of the goods from the customs compound (ex. bonded warehouse) or directly from the ship. (28) Importer “B” disposes of the imported goods to local clients.
(29) Importer “B” pays the bill, if drawn under Usance, to the L/C Issuing Bank on its maturity day.
(30) The L/C Issuing Bank remits the proceeds to the Negotiating Bank in the exporting country, thus the account is fully settled and the whole procedure is completed.
Importer “B” lodges claims against damages or losses, if any, with the insurance company accompanied by a “Survey Report”, “Insurance Policy” and other documents required. The claims will be indemnified against these documents.
To indemnify someone against something bad happening means to promise to protect them, especially financially, if it happens.