캄보디아 농촌마을은 아직까지 금융업이 발달하지 않아 마을 내부에 사채업

이 발달하여 있음.

- 사채업 이자율: 5~10%/월

∙KMP 사업의 이자율 대비 2.4~4.8배(개인대출), 2.2~4.3배(그룹대출)의 높은 수준임

- 현금 대출 - 현금 상환 혹은 현금 대출 - 현물 상환 방식을 취하고 있다고 함.

- 현금 대출 - 현물 상환의 방식을 취하는 대부업자는 농산물 수집 및 중개 업을 하고 있는 경우도 있음.

- 구체적으로 현금 대출 현물 상환의 경우 카사바 수집상의 수매 가격은 6,000Riel/kg임에 반해 사채업자의 카사바 수매 가격 4,000Riel/kg임. 이는 현금 상환보다 40~45% 높은 이자율을 부과하는 것임.

KMP 사업으로 마을 내부 사채업의 높은 이자율로 인한 마을 농민의 사채업 자 및 대출금에 대한 종속문제 완화에 기여

담뱃잎 건조대 및 농작물 생산을 위한 농지 구입에 대출 자금을 사용하여 캄보디아의 농촌 주민들에게 소득 창출의 효과를 지님.

또한 마을 내부의 소규모 상점을 운영하거나 트럭을 이용하여 운송업을 가

능하게 하는 등 농외소득원 창출에도 영향을 미침.

○ KMP 사업은 그룹 대출자 및 마을에서 활동하고 있는 VCC 혹은 마을신용 관리 위원들 중 다수가 여성이므로 여성의 사회적 지위 향상과 의사결정력 향상, 여성의 경제적 능력 향상에 기여했다고 볼 수 있음.

2.5. 지속가능성

- 2011년에는 MRD의 Supervision Board에서 KMP 자본금의 증대를 위해

금액 840 1,100 190 1,003 295.50 1,569.25 4,997.75

주: 기타는 휴가비용과 병원 진료 비용 등 포함

월 년도 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

월 년 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

           ⋯      

- 위에서 소액금융자금의 장기적으로 지속가능하지 않다는 것은 →∞ 일 때

lim

→∞

  을 의미함.

결 론

이 사업은 ‘캄보디아 농촌마을 소액금융지원 시범사업’의 2차 년도 사업으 로 캄보디아 농촌마을의 빈곤 경감과 소득원 증대가 목적임. 따라서 사업기 간 중 소액금융 자본금 지원, 소액금융 운용실태 점검 및 컨설팅 등을 시행 하고 현지 워크샵을 개최하였음.

2차 년도 사업의 특징으로는 신규 2개 지원 마을을 선정하였다는 것과 대출 이자율의 하락, 대출 규모의 조정을 들 수 있음.

- KMP 사업과 MRD C.S.와의 구별을 위하여 MRD C.S.에서 지원받지 않은 Prey Chhor district 의 2개 마을을 추가 지원 대상으로 선정하였음.

- 또한 이 사업은 시범사업이므로 소액금융사업 본래의 취지를 충족시키기 위하여 이자율을 하향 조정하였음. 그리고 이자율을 하향 조정하여도 물 가상승률과 운영비용을 고려한 향후 자본금의 규모는 축소하지 않을 것으 로 추정되었음.

- 캄보디아내 물가상승률을 고려하여 그룹대출의 규모를 상향조정하였음.

2차 년도에는 사업의 확장을 위하여 기존에 있던 캄퐁참주 Kroch Chhmar district과 Tboung Khmum district의 6개 마을 이외에도 캄퐁참주 Prey Chhor district에서 신규 2개 마을을 선정하였음.

- Prasat은 근처에 거대한 호수가 있어 향후 마을의 발전이 이루어지고 소득

출받는 비중이 큼을 알 수 있음.

물가상승률, 운영비용을 고려하여 향후 자본금을 추산해 보아도 자본금이 증가하여 지속가능성이 있을 것으로 판단됨.

○ 추가적으로 KMP 사업의 자본금에 대한 관리는 MRD C.S.에서 하고 있음.

따라서 우리나라측에서 지속적으로 KMP와 관련된 사업이 시행되지 않을 경우 KMP 사업의 자본금이 MRD C.S.의 자본금에 흡수될 수도 있음. 그러 므로 향후에도 이에 대한 지속적인 관리가 필요할 것임.

현지 워크숍 발표 자료

1. Outcome, Performance and Policy Issue of Micro-credit in

Cambodia, Mr. Phann Saphoeurn (MRD 농촌경제개발과)

2. Evaluation and New Direction of the KMP, 김정승

(한국농촌경제연구원)

3. Communoty Health Mobilization, Mr. Koy Vannarith

(RACHA)

4. PRASAC 소개 및 발표, Mr. Choub Veasna(PREASAC)

5. 마을 리더 및 주민들의 발표

5.1. Village No. 2

First of all, I respect to H.E Try Meng, all Korean delegations and all partic-ipants of the workshop. My name is Hak Srei On , I am Chief of VCC of village No 2, Rokar Khnor Commune, Krouchhmar District. I would like to present you about outcome of Korean Micro-credit Project in my village.

5.1.1. The purpose of borrowers

○ Population

- There are 271 HH,1179 persons, 16persons have migrated. 95% of pop-ulation are farmers who do agricultural activities such as rice, corn, bean, tobacco growing and livestock. 5% are businessmen and middlemen.

Land

- There are total land in the village 393.10 ha, rice field 25 ha, crop field 259.39ha, the rest is land house construction.

The reasons why we borrow money

- We have natural resources (wet land) for agricultural activities so we can cultivate crops twice a year.

- We want to increase crop yield so we need the money to buy seed, fer-tilizers, pesticide and hire land and workers.

- There are many MFIs in the village, but we decided to borrow from KMP because the interest is cheaper than other MFIs and KMP's services are good.

Credit use

- People use credit for tobacco, corn and rice production

5.1.2. Problem solution and plan

○ In the village, there are 22 borrowers(13 female) of individual loan (no group loan). Loan outstanding 102,492, 800 Riel.

The problems never happen on interest and principal repayment (Repayment rate=100%).

There are competition between KMP and another MFIs such as ACLEDA(Interest rate 2.5%/month), PRASAC (Interest rate 2.7%/month), AMRET (Interest rate 2.6%/month), AMK (Interest rate 2.7%/month)

If we compare KMP and other MFIs, KMP's interest rate is cheap but the loan size is small that can not respond to the villagers needs.

The problem solution is requirement to provide loan size can respond to vil-lagers needs.

The future plan, people in village No2 will borrow money from KMP again to expand agricultural land and production and increase family income.

5.1.3. Status income/property

○ Before credit borrowing, villagers income is low, properties are poor, crop production yield is low.

After credit borrowing, villager's living standard is improved and changed because we got the credit to buy fertilizers to increase crop yield and income.

The reason why it is changed because the villagers use the credit follow their goals, do not drink wines, do not gambling. In the other hand, KMP's interest is reasonable.

5.1.4. Village Development Plan

There are Village Development Committee (VDC) and Village Credit Committee(VCC).

Village development plan is made by commune council and village leaders.

VCC has duty to facilitate credit issue with CO.

Development need of village No2 are road maintenance, clean water supply and credit.

Credit is very important for villager to increase their family income.

Our future plan is to continue borrow money from KMP again.

5.1.5. Regulation/Principles

Criteria for borrowers

- Who live in the village recognize by village leader.

- Who has job/occupations - Honest

Principles

- Interest rate 2.1%/month for individual loan,2.3%/month for group loan.

- Individual loan is required the mortgage, the mortgage value is 200% of loan. The group do not need collateral but must organize mutual guaran-tee group.

- We have no punishment to who repay back late og default.

5.1.6. Borrower selection procedure

Borrower selection

- Who volunteer to borrow, nobody force them.

- Who has no debt with other MFIs.

- Who understand on condition of borrowing.

We have VCC meeting to select borrowers.

We meet and make interview with borrowers.

Discussion between CO and VCC.

COs have right to make decision on loan provision.

VCC just gives advise and information about borrowers to CO.

5.2. Village No. 3

First of all, I respect to H.E Try Meng, all Korean delegations and all partic-ipants of the workshop. My name is Orn Eng Lay , I am Chief of VCC of vil-lage No 2, Rokar Khnor Commune, Krouchhmar District. I would like to

pres-ent you about outcome of Korean Micro-credit Project in my village. out-standing 115,489, 000 Riel.

The problems never happen on interest and principal repayment (Repayment rate=100%).

There are competition between KMP and another MFIs such as ACLEDA, PRASAC , AMRET and AMK cause some KMP's clients borrow money from those MFIs.

If we compare other MFIs with KMP show that KMP's loan size can not respond to villagers needs because our villagers want big loan size. On the another hand, for other MFIs when we borrow money more and more the in-terest rate cheaper and cheaper. But for KMP we borrow big or small loan size interest rate is the same.

The problem solution is to request KMP increase the loan size to respond to villagers demands and decrease interest rate.

In the future, our villagers will borrow credit from KMP again to expand oc-cupation and generate family income.

5.2.3. Status income/property

Before credit borrowing, villagers income is low, properties are poor, crop production yield is low.

After credit borrowing, villager's living standard is improved, income is in-creased, can buy some new things or using materials for their families be-cause we got the credit to buy fertilizers to increase crop yield and income.

The reason why it is changed because the villagers use the credit follow their goals.

5.2.4. Village Development Plan

There are Village Development Committee (VDC) and Village Credit Committee(VCC).

Village development plan is made by commune council and village leaders.

VCC has duty to facilitate credit issue with CO.

Development need of village No3 are only road maintenance and credit.

Sanitation we do not deed because we obtained a lot of toilets from IMF.

Credit is very important for villager to increase their family income.

Our future plan is to continue borrow money from KMP again.

5.2.5. Regulation/Principles

Criteria for borrowers

- Who live permanently in the village.

- Who has proper job/occupations - Honest

Principles

- Interest rate 2.1%/month for individual loan,2.3%/month for group loan.

- Individual loan is required the mortgage, the mortgage value is 200% of loan. The group do not need collateral but must organize mutual guarantee group.

- We have no punishment to who repay back late of default.

5.2.6. Borrower selection procedure

Borrower selection

- Who volunteer to borrow, nobody force them.

- Who has no debt with other MFIs or private money lenders.

- Who has legal job/occupation.

We have VCC meeting to select borrowers.

We meet and make interview with borrowers.

Discussion between CO and VCC.

COs have right to make decision on loan provision.

VCC just gives advise and information about borrowers to CO.

5.3. Village No. 5

First of all, I respect to H.E Try Meng, all Korean delegations and all partic-ipants of the workshop. My name is Treng Meng Heang , I am a village leader Chief of VCC of village No 5, Rokar Khnor Commune, Krouchhmar District.

I would like to present you about outcome of Korean Micro-credit Project in my village.

5.3.1. The purpose of borrowers

Population

There are 3354 HH,1822 persons (807 persons are female), 85% of

pop-ulation are farmers who do agricultural activities such as rice, corn, sesame, to-bacco growing and livestock. Others are businessmen.

Land

to sent document to Ministry of Rural Development at Phnom Penh for approvals. These are the reasons why villagers decided to migrate to find job at the cities and some villagers migrate to China, Malaysia, Korea and Thailand.

To solve this problem village leader always educate villagers to use credit to expand their job in village is better than go away from family.

There are competition between KMP and another MFIs such as ACLEDA, PRASAC , AMRET and AMK cause some KMP's clients borrow money from those MFIs and to repay to another MFI.

We request KMP to provide 100 millions Riel to village No 5 which can re-spond to villagers needs.

In the future, we will use credit to expand cassava fields, buy fertilizers and improve soil quality so they could cultivate twice a yea.

5.3.3. Status income/property

Before credit borrowing, villagers income is low, properties are poor, crop production yield is low, rice is not enough to supply their families, they have no transportation means such as bike, motorbikes etc.

After credit borrowing, villager's living standard is improved, income is in-creased, can buy TV, agricultural machinery, bicycles for their children or us-ing materials for their families.

The reason why it is changed because they got the credit to buy fertilizers to increase crop yield and income.

5.3.4. Village Development Plan

There are Village Development Committee (VDC) and Village Credit Committee(VCC).

Village development plan is made by commune council and village leaders.

VCC has duty to facilitate credit issue with CO.

Development need of village No5 are road maintenance, pond, canals, espe-cially credit.

Credit is very important to expand agricultural land.

Our future plan is to continue borrow money from KMP again but we needs 100,000,000 Riel for village No 5.

5.3.5. Regulation/Principles

Criteria for borrowers

- Who live permanently in the village.

- Who has proper job/occupations - Honest

Principles

- Interest rate 2.1%/month for individual loan,2.3%/month for group loan.

- Individual loan is required the mortgage, the mortgage value is 200% of loan. The group do not need collateral but must organize mutual guaran-tee group.

- We have no punishment to who repay back late of default.

5.3.6. Borrower selection procedure

Borrower selection

- Who has proper occupation.

- Who has no debt with other MFIs or private money lenders.

- Who respect and follow the contract.

We have VCC meeting to choose borrowers.

We meet and make interview with borrowers to ask them about their ex-penditure and income because we want to know how can they repay back.

Discussion between CO and VCC.

COs have right to make decision on loan provision.

VCC just gives advice and information about borrowers to CO.

5.4. Trapaing Dom Village

First of all, I respect to H.E Try Meng, all Korean delegations and all partic-ipants of the workshop. My name is Tong Kim On , I am a village leader and Chief of VCC of Trapaing Dom village, Sralop Commune, Tboung Khmum District. I would like to present you about outcome of Korean Micro-credit Project in my village.

5.4.1. The purpose of borrowers

Population

There are 259 HH,1313 persons, 669 persons are female, 242 houses. 100%

KMP's loan size is small if compare with other MFIs , especially group loan.

There are some MFIs compete with KMP in our village. Those MFIs are:

- Credit (Individual): interest rate= 2.8%/month - ACLEDA (Individual): interest rate= 2.8%/month - AMK (Individual): interest rate = 2.8%/month - AMK(Individual): interest rate = 3.0%/month

But villagers decide to borrow from KMP because its interest is cheaper and KMP's credit officers provide and collect money in the village.

If we compare KMP and other MFIs, KMP's interest rate is cheap but the loan size is small for group loan.

The problem solution is requirement to provide more than 500,000 Riel.

The future plan, people in Trapaing Dom village will borrow money from KMP again to expand agricultural land and production, especially cassava production

Our request is to increase loan size of group loan to 1,000,000 Riel.

5.4.3. Status income/property

Before credit borrowing, their property such as bicycles, motorbikes, agricul-tural machineries and using materials is in low level.

After credit borrowing, villager's living standard is improved and their prop-erty increase twice if compare with the past.

The reason why it is changed because they get the credit from KMP to

cul-tivate crops, especially cassava. In the other hand, KMP's interest is reasonable.

5.4.4. Village Development Plan

There are Village Development Committee (VDC) ,Village Credit Committee (VCC), Rice Bank Management Committee and Community Committee.

Village development plan is made by commune council and village leaders.

Sometime we have meeting with members of all committees to discus about village development plan.

VCC has duty to facilitate credit issue with CO.

Development need of Trapaing Dom village are road maintenance, clean wa-ter supply, toilets and credit.

Credit is very important for villager to increase their family income.

Our future plan is to continue borrow money from KMP again to expand oc-cupations and credit more and more from a year to a year.

5.4.5. Regulation/Principles

Criteria for borrowers

- Who live permanently in the village.

- Who has legal job/occupations

Have to organize mutual guarantee group before borrowing (Group loan).

문서에서 캄보디아 농촌마을 소액금융지원 시범사업(2차 년도) (페이지 83-0)