• 검색 결과가 없습니다.

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Figure 15. Pole figures of compositional minerals of retrograded eclogite. Pole figures are plotted in the lower hemisphere using an equal area projection. Foliation is indicted as white line, and lineation is indicated as red dot. A half scatter width of 30°was used. S: foliation, L: lineation, N: Number of grains. X // L, Z⊥S.

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6.3 LPO of epidote

Based on the distribution of the [001] axes, epidote LPO can be divided into [001]

point type (SL-type) and [001] girdle-type (L-type) normal to the lineation (Cao et al., 2013). The (010) poles of all samples were aligned subparallel to lineation.

The [100] axes were strongly aligned subnormal to the lineation in the sample 2475.

This is probably caused by the small number of grains measured. The [100] axes of the other samples were scattered. The [001] axes in the samples (2474 and 2475) were concentrated close to Y direction of pole figures. However, the [001] axes of sample 2476 were subparallel to the lineation as a girdle. Only (010) poles in the studied samples that had a strong maximum aligning subparallel to lineation were similar to the reported epidote LPO pattern (Cao et al., 2013). Both [001] and [100]

axes were different from the previously reported LPO pattern of epidote.

6.4 Seismic anisotropy of amphibolite in the crust

The P-wave anisotropy (AVp) of amphiboles in this study ranges from 7.5 to 17.5 % (Table 2, Fig. 10). The maximum S-wave anisotropy (max.AVs) of amphiboles was in the range of 4.6 – 15.5 %. The AVp and max.AVs of amphibole was relatively higher than previous other studies. The AVp of poly crystal amphibole from the Lewisian shear zone of NW Scotland was reported in the range of 3.6 – 6.0 % and the max.AVs was in the range 3.8 – 6.9 % (Tatham et al., 2008). The AVp

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of amphibole from the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of China and the East Athabasca mylonite and the Britt Domain of Canada wasinthe range of 7.5 – 14.0 % and the max.AVs was in the range of 4.2 – 8.5 % (Ji et al, 2013). The AVp

of experimentally deformed amphibole at the pressure of 1 GPa and temperatures (480 – 700℃) was in the range of 9.0 – 14.6 % and the max.AVs was in the range of 7.6 – 12.1 % (Ko and Jung, 2015). The AVp of mica- and amphibole-bearing metamorphic rocksfrom the southeast Tibetan Plateau was in the range of 5.7 – 14.0 % and the max.AVs wasin the range of 4.1 – 8.5 % (Ji et al., 2015).

The polarization direction of fast shear wave which is parallel to the trench were observed in many subduction zones (Civello and Margheriti, 2004; Long and Silver, 2008, 2009a, Long and Becker, 2010). The delay times of 0.1 ‒ 0.3 s were observed in subduction zones (Nakajima and Hasegawa, 2004; Anglin and Fouch, 2005;

Nakajima et al., 2006; Long and van der Hilst, 2006; Long and Wirth, 2013). In addition, the fast orientation and delay time has been also observed in the interior of crust (Wolbern et al., 2014, Zheng et al., 2018). Trench-parallel fast polarizations and delay time between 0.3 and 1.2s have been observed in the central Andean Altiplano and Puna plateaus (Wolbern et al., 2014). The prevailing EW polarizations in the Central Andes generally reflect the direction of Nazca plate motion while the observed trench-parallel fast polarizations likely originate in the continental crust above the subducting slab. A possible explanation for this alignment was considered to be due to ductile flow in the lower crust from the Puna towards the Altiplano plateau. According to the recent study by using the P to S converted phase from the Moho (Zheng et al., 2018), the mean magnitude of crustal azimuthal anisotropy was 0.48 ± 0.13 s in the tectonically active plateau and 0.23 ± 0.10 s in the stable

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Sichuan Basin, the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The contrast in delay time between the plateau region and the Sichuan Basin indicated that crustal anisotropy was mostly related to the degree of crustal deformation which was a function of stress magnitude and lithospheric strength.

A large delay time of 0.95 – 2.1 s and fast polarization direction oriented parallel to the trench have been observed in northern Caribbean – North American subduction zone (Russo et al., 1996; Piñero-Feliciangeli and Kendall, 2008; Meighan and Pulliam, 2013; Hodges and Miller, 2015). SKS splitting parameters presented delay time of 1.36 s and 1.85 s measured at PUCM and SMN1 stations near the study area (Meighan and Pulliam, 2013).

The delay time of S-wave was calculated using the LPOs of minerals in this study (sample 2472, 2476) and the equation (Pera et al., 2003).

D = 100 × dt ×< Vs >/AVs

where D is the thickness of the anisotropic layer, dt is the delay time of the shear waves, and < Vs >is the average velocity of S-wave. The average Vs was calculated as (VS1max + VS1min + VS2max + VS2min)/4. AVs is the anisotropy of the S-wave in the middle of the propagation direction. Crustal thickness of the study area is known to be ~ 40 km (Escuder-Viruete et al., 2013). Assuming that the crust is made of amphibolite with 30 km thick, the delay time was estimated to be 0.35s for amphibole only and 0.17 s for whole rock.

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6.5 Pressure and temperature conditions of amphibolites

There was no report on the P-T conditions of amphibolite of Cuaba unit. Only P- T conditions for the garnet peridotite, eclogite and garnet amphibolite were reported previously. In this study, comparing the composition of the studied samples with the equilibrium assemblage diagram of garnet amphibolite from Guaconejo subunit of the Cuaba unit (Escuder-Viruete and Pérez-Estaún, 2013), pressure range was calculated to be between 0.5 – 0.7 GPa. Pl + Phg + Cpx + Ep + Amp area in the assemblage diagram was selected because studied amphibolites did not contain garnet and mainly were composed of amphibole, plagioclase and epidote. Calculated temperatures of amphibolites are 610 to 820 ℃ (Table 3). Sample 2476 which had the type-I LPO of amphibole showed the highest temperature condition, 710 to 820 ℃. The temperature condition of the sample 2481 which showed the type-III LPO was 700 to 790 ℃. In the case of the sample 2474 which showed the type-IV LPO, the range of calculated temperature was 610 to 710 ℃, which is the lowest temperature condition.

P-T conditions for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks of the Cuaba Gneiss in the Dominican Republic using multiple-equilibrium analysis (WEBINVEQ) have been reported (Abbott and Draper, 2006): garnet peridotite, 3.0 – 4.2 GPa, 838 – 867 ℃;

garnet clinopyroxenite, 2.75 GPa, 807 ℃; retrograded eclogite, 1.8 GPa, 730 ℃. In the upper structural levels of the Guaconejo subunit, the modeled peak P-T conditions of a garnet – epidote amphibolite are 580 ℃ and 19.2 kbar (Escuder- Viruete and Pérez-Estaún, 2013). In the lower structural levels of the Guaconejo

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subunit, the modeled peak P-T conditions in garnet metagabbros are 640 ℃ and 17.5 kbar. Since studied samples have experienced the retrograded metamorphism, equilibrium temperature of samples are expected to be 600 – 700 ℃ less than the modeled peak P-T conditions; but the calculated temperature conditions were higher than the expected temperature.

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Table 3. Pressure and temperature estimation of amphibolites calculated by amphibole – plagioclase geothermometer (Blundy and Holland, 1990).

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Chapter 7. Conclusion

Amphibolites from Cuaba unit, Dominican Republic were studied and four types of amphibole LPOs were identified in this study. Three amphibolites (2472, 2475, and 2476) showed the type-I LPO of amphibole. Amphibole with the type-I LPO showed the largest grain size ( > 800 µm). The aspect ratio of amphibole was small to medium in the range of 1.6 to 1.8. The content of amphibole in the samples was 40 - 49 %.

The compositional layers of hornblende and plagioclase in the three samples were well developed and they showed porphyroclastic texture. Other amphibolite (2481) showed the type-III LPO of amphibole. The sample with the type-III LPO showed small aspect ratio of 1.6. Average grain size of hornblende with the type-III LPO was smaller than that with the type-I LPO, but larger than that with the type-IV LPO. One amphibolite (2474) and a tremolite schist (2477) exhibited the type-IV LPO. Amphibole with type-IV LPO showed the smallest grain size (140 - 170 µm).

But, the aspect ratio of amphibole was the largest among the studied samples. The content of amphibole was the most with more than 70 % of rocks. The results of this study showed that the microstructures such as the grain size, aspect ratio and modal composition of amphibole are related to the different LPO types of amphibole. Newly found LPO of amphibole named as type-V LPO was very similar to the LPO of diopside in symplectite. It is considered that amphibole and diopside have maintained the LPO of pre-existing omphacite during the retrograde stage. The temperature conditions of amphibolites measured by EPMA and amphibole – plagioclase geothermometer were in the range of 610 – 820 ℃ when pressure was assumed to be 0.5 – 0.7 GPa. The seismic velocity and anisotropy of P- and S-waves were

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calculated for amphibole, plagioclase, and epidote, and bulk rocks. The P-wave velocity anisotropy ranged from 7.5 % to 17.5 % and the S wave maximum anisotropy ranged from 4.6 % to 15.5 %, which were relatively large compared to previous studies. The polarization directions of the fast shear wave were different depending on the LPO types of amphibole in horizontal flow. Large seismic anisotropy of amphibolite can be a source of seismic anisotropy in the middle and lower crust.

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