Female 0.022 ** 0.004 0.002 0.017 ** 0.005 0.001 0.018 ** 0.005 0.002

Age group (omitted: 65 years and older)

Younger than 25 years 0.011 0.013 0.001 0.040 ** 0.013 0.003 0.041 ** 0.014 0.003 25 to 29 years -0.054 ** 0.012 -0.004 -0.035 ** 0.012 -0.003 -0.032 * 0.013 -0.002 30 to 34 years -0.065 ** 0.012 -0.005 -0.053 ** 0.012 -0.004 -0.041 ** 0.013 -0.003 35 to 39 years -0.065 ** 0.012 -0.005 -0.053 ** 0.012 -0.004 -0.040 ** 0.013 -0.003 40 to 44 years -0.056 ** 0.012 -0.004 -0.044 ** 0.012 -0.003 -0.031 * 0.013 -0.002

45 to 49 years 0.009 0.012 0.001 0.012 0.012 0.001 0.024 0.013 0.002

50 to 54 years 0.155 ** 0.013 0.013 0.162 ** 0.013 0.014 0.176 ** 0.013 0.015

55 to 59 years 0.328 ** 0.014 0.030 0.338 ** 0.014 0.030 0.347 ** 0.014 0.031

60 to 64 years 0.523 ** 0.013 0.052 0.539 ** 0.014 0.053 0.550 ** 0.014 0.053

Geographic region (omitted:

Ontario)

Atlantic 0.009 0.011 0.001 0.023 * 0.011 0.002 0.027 * 0.011 0.002

Quebec 0.040 ** 0.006 0.003 0.043 ** 0.006 0.003 0.041 ** 0.007 0.003

Prairies 0.128 ** 0.006 0.011 0.151 ** 0.006 0.012 0.162 ** 0.006 0.013

British Columbia 0.068 ** 0.006 0.005 0.075 ** 0.007 0.006 0.084 ** 0.007 0.007

Other 0.905 ** 0.022 0.100 0.860 ** 0.023 0.093 0.852 ** 0.024 0.091

Time since entry

2 years -0.101 ** 0.006 -0.008 -0.101 ** 0.006 -0.009 -0.101 ** 0.006 -0.009

3 years -0.269 ** 0.007 -0.023 -0.269 ** 0.007 -0.024 -0.269 ** 0.007 -0.024

4 years -0.434 ** 0.008 -0.035 -0.434 ** 0.008 -0.036 -0.434 ** 0.008 -0.036

5 years -0.571 ** 0.010 -0.045 -0.570 ** 0.010 -0.045 -0.571 ** 0.010 -0.045

6 years -0.791 ** 0.012 -0.058 -0.791 ** 0.012 -0.058 -0.791 ** 0.012 -0.057

7 years -1.108 ** 0.018 -0.072 -1.108 ** 0.018 -0.071 -1.108 ** 0.018 -0.071

Immigrant 0.165 ** 0.011 0.021 0.081 ** 0.013 0.006 -0.039 0.020 -0.002

Immigrant × 2 years since entry 0.168 ** 0.017 0.058 ** 0.020 0.059 0.032

Immigrant × 3 years since entry 0.138 ** 0.019 -0.007 0.023 -0.012 0.038

Immigrant × 4 years since entry 0.090 ** 0.024 -0.045 0.027 0.021 0.046

Immigrant × 5 years since entry -0.015 0.030 -0.120 ** 0.034 -0.058 0.059 Immigrant × 6 years since entry -0.051 0.041 -0.119 ** 0.046 -0.041 0.079

Immigrant × 7 years since entry -0.061 0.062 -0.054 0.066 0.066 0.114

Constant -2.189 ** 0.011 -2.208 ** 0.012 -2.223 ** 0.012

Table 1

Results from discrete time exit model defined by Equation (4), Canadian-born and immigrant business owners

** significantly different from reference category (p < 0.01)

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database, 2001 to 2011.

* significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05)

Note: The number of observations is 2,644,232 for the Canadian-born and recent immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for less than 10 years), 2,596,831 for the Canadian-born and mid-term immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for 10 to 19 years) and 2,451,650 for the Canadian-born and longer-term immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for 20 to 28 years).

coefficients standard

Female 0.050 ** 0.014 0.005 0.006 0.014 0.000

Age group (omitted: 65 years and older)

Younger than 25 years -0.144 ** 0.036 -0.015 0.015 0.043 0.001

25 to 29 years -0.211 ** 0.034 -0.021 -0.139 ** 0.041 -0.012

30 to 34 years -0.253 ** 0.033 -0.025 -0.210 ** 0.040 -0.018

35 to 39 years -0.256 ** 0.034 -0.025 -0.214 ** 0.040 -0.018

40 to 44 years -0.247 ** 0.035 -0.025 -0.175 ** 0.040 -0.015

45 to 49 years -0.153 ** 0.038 -0.016 -0.162 ** 0.041 -0.014

50 to 54 years -0.074 0.046 -0.008 -0.017 0.044 -0.002

55 to 59 years 0.049 0.062 0.005 0.057 0.051 0.005

60 to 64 years 0.066 0.070 0.007 0.257 ** 0.057 0.026

Geographic region (omitted: Ontario)

Atlantic -0.107 0.061 -0.010 0.036 0.065 0.003

Quebec 0.134 ** 0.022 0.013 0.085 ** 0.021 0.007

Prairies -0.107 ** 0.019 -0.010 0.056 ** 0.018 0.004

British Columbia -0.021 0.017 -0.002 0.028 0.017 0.002

Other 1.316 ** 0.060 0.190 1.024 ** 0.073 0.120

Industry1 (omitted: manufacturing)

Unknown 0.108 * 0.044 0.010 0.077 * 0.035 0.006

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting -0.241 ** 0.092 -0.019 -0.387 ** 0.071 -0.026 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 0.299 0.153 0.029 0.303 * 0.141 0.027

Utilities 0.123 0.354 0.011 -0.248 0.348 -0.018

Construction 0.068 0.049 0.006 0.092 * 0.038 0.008

Wholesale trade 0.218 ** 0.047 0.021 0.172 ** 0.041 0.014

Retail trade 0.073 0.045 0.007 0.104 ** 0.036 0.008

Transportation and warehousing -0.170 ** 0.049 -0.014 -0.014 0.040 -0.001

Information and cultural industries 0.313 ** 0.073 0.031 0.468 ** 0.069 0.044

Finance and insurance 0.134 0.074 0.012 0.112 0.058 0.009

Real estate and rental and leasing 0.046 0.062 0.004 0.290 ** 0.045 0.026

Professional, scientific and technical services 0.279 ** 0.044 0.027 0.167 ** 0.035 0.014 Management of companies and enterprises -0.084 0.122 -0.007 0.245 ** 0.083 0.021 Administration and support, waste management

and remediation services 0.145 ** 0.054 0.013 0.132 ** 0.044 0.011

Educational services 0.266 ** 0.070 0.026 0.150 * 0.068 0.012

Health care and social assistance -0.951 ** 0.063 -0.058 -1.083 ** 0.051 -0.055

Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.387 ** 0.095 0.039 0.375 ** 0.083 0.034

Accommodation and food services 0.093 * 0.045 0.008 0.136 ** 0.036 0.011

Other services (except public administration) 0.009 0.054 0.001 -0.044 0.042 -0.003 Education at landing (omitted: high school

or less)

Some postsecondary 0.008 0.019 0.001 -0.035 * 0.017 -0.003

Bachelor's degree -0.028 0.019 -0.003 -0.145 ** 0.021 -0.011

Postgraduate degree -0.017 0.024 -0.002 -0.191 ** 0.032 -0.015

Language at landing (French or English) 0.047 ** 0.016 0.004 0.112 ** 0.016 0.009

** significantly different from reference category (p < 0.01)

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database, 2001 to 2011.

Recent immigrants Longer-term immigrants

* significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05)

1. Industry is defined by the two-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007 code.

Note: The number of observations is 273,702 for recent immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for less than 10 years) and 307,467 for longer-term immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for 10 to 28 years).

Table 2-1

Results from discrete time exit model defined by Equation (5), immigrant business owners — Part 1

coefficients standard Source country (omitted: English-speaking1)

Western Europe 0.002 0.042 0.000 0.041 0.036

Eastern Europe 0.061 0.034 0.005 0.023 0.031 0.002

North Africa and the Middle East 0.304 ** 0.032 0.028 0.157 ** 0.029 0.013

Africa, except North Africa 0.363 ** 0.051 0.035 0.220 ** 0.045 0.018

India and nearby countries 0.061 0.032 0.005 0.061 * 0.030 0.005

China and nearby countries 0.281 ** 0.032 0.026 0.167 ** 0.029 0.013

Latin America 0.323 ** 0.042 0.030 0.275 ** 0.035 0.023

Southeast Asia -0.069 0.036 -0.006 0.053 0.031 0.004

Unknown 0.545 0.550 0.056 -0.029 0.531 -0.002

Immigrant category (omitted: family)

Skilled workers and PNs -0.018 0.028 0.002 -0.106 ** 0.027 -0.006

Business immigrants -0.033 0.038 0.028 -0.068 0.037 -0.002

Refugees 0.252 ** 0.042 0.020 0.081 * 0.033 0.006

Other 0.056 0.064 0.008 -0.046 0.044 0.002

Time since entry

2 years -0.042 0.034 0.008 -0.046 0.028 -0.003

3 years -0.213 ** 0.039 -0.011 -0.302 ** 0.033 -0.023

4 years -0.434 ** 0.049 -0.029 -0.492 ** 0.040 -0.036

5 years -0.672 ** 0.065 -0.047 -0.720 ** 0.052 -0.049

6 years -0.905 ** 0.088 -0.062 -0.951 ** 0.070 -0.060

7 years -1.051 ** 0.124 -0.077 -1.158 ** 0.100 -0.070

Immigrant category × time since entry

Skilled workers and PNs × 2 years since entry 0.101 * 0.040 0.011 0.040

Skilled workers and PNs × 3 years since entry 0.039 0.047 0.085 0.047

Skilled workers and PNs × 4 years since entry 0.088 0.058 0.131 * 0.056

Skilled workers and PNs × 5 years since entry 0.046 0.076 -0.058 0.075

Skilled workers and PNs × 6 years since entry -0.008 0.105 0.078 0.098

Skilled workers and PNs × 7 years since entry -0.181 0.151 0.050 0.142

Business immigrants × 2 years since entry 0.446 ** 0.053 0.032 0.054

Business immigrants × 3 years since entry 0.505 ** 0.060 0.115 0.062

Business immigrants × 4 years since entry 0.506 ** 0.072 0.028 0.076

Business immigrants × 5 years since entry 0.539 ** 0.093 0.246 ** 0.090

Business immigrants × 6 years since entry 0.499 ** 0.124 0.147 0.123

Business immigrants × 7 years since entry 0.205 0.181 -0.024 0.181

Refugees × 2 years since entry -0.050 0.065 -0.027 0.049

Refugees × 3 years since entry -0.044 0.076 -0.069 0.058

Refugees × 4 years since entry -0.155 0.098 -0.050 0.070

Refugees × 5 years since entry -0.087 0.128 0.087 0.087

Refugees × 6 years since entry 0.032 0.171 0.155 0.115

Refugees × 7 years since entry -0.656 * 0.310 0.103 0.165

Other × 2 years since entry 0.079 0.099 0.089 0.066

Other × 3 years since entry 0.083 0.117 0.084 0.077

Other × 4 years since entry -0.065 0.154 0.103 0.091

Other × 5 years since entry 0.067 0.197 0.323 ** 0.108

Other × 6 years since entry -0.102 0.278 -0.004 0.158

Other × 7 years since entry -0.041 0.369 0.059 0.215

Constant -2.087 ** 0.062 -2.137 ** 0.057

Table 2-2

Results from discrete time exit model defined by Equation (5), immigrant business owners — Part 2

Recent immigrants Longer-term immigrants

* significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05)

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database, 2001 to 2011.

… not applicable

** significantly different from reference category (p < 0.01)

Notes: The number of observations is 273,702 for recent immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for less than 10 years) and 307,467 for longer-term immigrants (immigrants who have lived in Canada for 10 to 28 years). PNs: Provincial nominees.

1. English-speaking countries include the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.090 0.100 0.110 0.120

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

rate

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 1

Hazard rate of exit from business ownership, immigrant and Canadian-born business owners

Canadian-born business owners Immigrant business owners Note: The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 2

Survival rate of business ownership, immigrant and Canadian-born business owners

Canadian-born business owners Immigrant business owners Note: The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 3

Survival rate of business ownership, recent-immigrant and Canadian-born business owners

Canadian-born business owners Recent-immigrant business owners Notes: Recent immigrants have lived in Canada for less than 10 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 4

Survival rate of business ownership, mid-term-immigrant and Canadian-born business owners

Canadian-born business owners Mid-term-immigrant business owners Note: Mid-term immigrants have lived in Canada for 10 to 19 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 5

Survival rate of business ownership, longer-term-immigrant and Canadian-born business owners

Canadian-born business owners Longer-term-immigrant busines owners Note: Longer-term immigrants have lived in Canada for 20 to 28 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 6

Estimated adjusted survival rate of business ownership of recent immigrants, by educational attainment

High school or less Some postsecondary

Bachelor's degree Postgraduate degree

Note: Recent immigrants have lived in Canada from less than 10 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 7

Estimated adjusted survival rate of business ownership of longer-term immigrants, by educational attainment

High school or less Some postsecondary

Bachelor's degree Postgraduate degree

Note: Longer-term immigrants have lived in Canada for 10 to 28 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 8

Estimated unadjusted survival rate of business ownership of recent immigrants, by immigrant classs

Family class Skilled workers and provincial nominees

Business immigrants Refugees

Other

Note: Recent immigrants have lived in Canada for less than 10 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 9

Estimated unadjusted survival rate of business ownership of longer-term immigrants, by immigrant class

Family class Skilled workers and provincial nominees

Business immigrants Refugees

Other

Note: Longer-term immigrants have lived in Canada for 10 to 28 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50

Number of years in private incorporated business Chart 10

Estimated unadjusted survival rate of business ownership of longer-term immigrants, by source region

English-speaking Western Europe Eastern and Central Europe

North Africa and the Middle East Africa except North Africa India and the region

China and the region Latin America Southeast Asia

Unknown

Notes: English-speaking source regions include the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Longer-term immigrants have lived in Canada for 10 to 28 years or more. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

proportion

Number of years in private incorporated business

Chart 11

Estimated unadjusted survival rate of business ownership of longer-term immigrants, by industry

Construction Manufacturing

Wholesale trade Retail trade

Transportation and warehousing Real estate and rental and leasing Professional, scientific and technical services Administration and support Health care and social assistance Accommodation and food services Notes: The full name for "Administration and support" is "Administration and support, waste management and remediation services." Industry is defined by the two-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007 code. Longer-term immigrants have lived in Canada for 10 to 28 years. The analysis includes all new ownership spells starting between 2003 and 2009.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database.

References

Fairlie, R.W., and M. Lofstrom. 2013. Immigration and Entrepreneurship. IZA Discussion Paper no. 7669. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Fertala, N. 2006. Determinants of Successful Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the Federal Republic of Germany. Tübingen: Eberhard-Karls-Universität.

Georgarakos, D., and K. Tatsiramos. 2007. Entrepreneurship and Survival Dynamics of Immigrants to the U.S. and their Descendants. IZA Discussion Paper no. 2792. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Green, D., H. Liu, Y. Ostrovsky, and G. Picot. 2016. Immigration, Business Ownership and Employment in Canada. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, no. 375. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019M. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Joona, P.A. 2010. “Exits from Self-Employment: Is There a Native-Immigrant Difference in Sweden?” International Migration Review 44 (3): 539–559.

Lofstrom, M., and C. Wang. 2006. Hispanic Self-Employment: A Dynamic Analysis of Business Ownership. IZA Discussion Paper no. 2101. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2010. “Open for Business:

Migrant Entrepreneurship in OECD Countries.” OECD Publishing. Available at:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264095830-en.

Persson, H. 2004. “The Survival and Growth of New Establishments in Sweden, 1987-1995.”

Small Business Economics 23 (5): 423–440.

Vinogradov, E., and E.J. Isaksen. 2008. “Survival of New Firms Owned by Natives and Immigrants in Norway.” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 13 (01): 21–38.

문서에서 The Exit and Survival Patterns of Immigrant Entrepreneurs: The Case of Private Incorporated Companies (페이지 17-26)