56 Measuring asset ownership and entrepreneurship from a gender perspective
Chapter 5: Survey Assessment, Lessons Learned, Conclusion, and Ways Forward
5.3 Conclusion and Ways Forward
hh in which all eligible adult members were
hh in which all eligible adult members were inter-viewed simultaneously (%) georgia
HH with 3 or more adults 1,399 100.0 75.3 56.5
HH with 2 or fewer adults 1,384 100.0 89.5 47.8
HH with 3 or more adults 1,341 99.8 39.0 26.5
HH with 2 or fewer adults 1,621 99.8 79.0 33.6
HH with 3 or more adults 790 99.9 76.2 31.8
HH with 2 or fewer adults 746 100.0 91.2 47.9
HH = household.
Source: Asian Development Bank estimates from Evidence and Data for Gender Equality pilot surveys.
In less than 1% of households, none of the members of principal couple could be surveyed in Mongolia and Cavite, Philippines. This situation was not observed in Georgia.
Table 5.8 presents the distribution of sample households interviewed by strata. The majority of the households interviewed had at least one eligible adult member. Out of every 10 sample households interviewed, about 5–6 with all eligible adult members were interviewed simultaneously in Georgia as compared to only 3 in Mongolia. This shows that there are challenges in being able to interview all eligible males and females selected for interview. Simultaneous interviews are also very difficult in the field due to non-availability of all household members at the same time. Interviews not conducted simultaneously and independently are likely to be influenced if the respondents interviewed earlier will share the outcome of the interview with those who are interviewed later.
5.3 Conclusion and Ways Forward
The global EDGE project was a response to the need for addressing data and methodological gaps in the collection of sex-disaggregated data. The Methodological Experiment on Measuring Asset Ownership from a Gender Perspective (MEXA), implemented under EDGE, aimed to provide a comparative assessment of different approaches to
respondent selection, as part of a household survey experiment on individual-level asset ownership and control, and specifically to give insights for further methodological surveys in pilot countries.
The experience from these pilot undertakings demonstrated while such initiative is challenging, it is feasible to collect high quality data on ownership of assets at the individual level with a carefully designed survey around a standardized framework.
The experience from the pilot surveys in the three countries provided rich inputs for the development of UN Methodological Guidelines on the Production of Statistics on Asset Ownership from a Gender Perspective. While methodological improvements will be an ongoing process, these surveys also provided benchmark estimates for the pilot countries. The extent of gender gaps varies by country and by asset type in each country but inequalities are generally higher for core assets such as dwelling, agricultural land, and other real estate. The surveys also provide evidence on how men and women acquire assets, if these assets are owned exclusively or jointly with spouse/partner or other household members, and how social norms, customs, and marital regimes play a role in determining acquisition of assets differently for men and women. ADB pilot countries’ experience would be most useful for those countries interested in conducting a stand-alone survey. The lessons gained also could serve as reference for further improvements that should be considered in planning and designing of the survey and for collecting data for the SDG 5.a.1 indicator.
Based on the results and experience of the pilot EDGE survey, it is recommended that NSOs interested in studying the gender gaps in incidence of assets, wealth, and analysis of intra-household dynamics of ownership and control of assets collect self-reported information (as opposed to proxy reporting) from household surveys by interviewing one or more randomly selected adult household members. The interview protocol requires interviews to be conducted separately and simultaneously or consecutively to prevent any biases due to information sharing among the respondents. Before the start of fieldwork, it is important to have developed a well-designed advocacy plan to inform all the households of the survey and to create willingness, support, and cooperation during survey implementation. The EDGE survey instruments should also be customized and translated into the local context. Rigorous training of the survey staff at all stages of survey implementation is critical for a successful operation.
There are other important factors discussed in the UN Guidelines33 that propose different methods of data collection depending upon the objectives of each country interested in implementing such a study. These guidelines provide the much needed information to the countries who plan to collect asset ownership-related indicators. Stand-alone surveys, are more costly than the option to append a few questions or a module to an ongoing survey.
If a country is only interested in the prevalence
33 More detailed recommendations are discussed in the UN Guidelines on Producing Statistics on Assets Ownership from a Gender Perspective from Household Surveys (forthcoming).
of asset ownership, a minimum set of questions can be appended to an existing household survey.
If a country plans to generate indicators on both ownership prevalence and intrahousehold dynamics, either a stand-alone survey can be conducted or a module can be appended to an existing household survey. If the objective of the data collection is to estimate gender asset gap, information on households and individuals is limited to the roster of household members and information on assets is restricted to asset ownership (reported or documented) and ownership rights. If the objective, however, is to also generate a gender wealth gap in addition to a gender asset gap, information on the roster of assets, characteristics of assets including value and modes of asset acquisition should also be collected. On the other hand, if the intention is to calculate gender asset gap, gender wealth gap, as well as conduct intra-household analysis, additional questions on the use and control of assets by individuals is needed.
For such an undertaking to be institutionalized in NSOs’ regular statistical activities, there should be a commitment between the producers and users of data in ensuring the production of regular, timely, and quality data on asset ownership with gender perspective. The NSOs should also engage its stakeholders—policy makers, researchers, and development partners—to fully utilize the data for the advancement of gender equality in the economic sphere.
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7. SECOND STAGE-STRATUM:(1= THREE OR MORE ADULT MEMBERS HHOLDS, 2= REMAINING HHOLDS)
10. IS THIS A REPLACEMENT HOUSEHOLD? YES = 1, NO = 2
12. NAME OF PRIMARY RESPONDENT
13. PERSON ID CODE OF PRIMARY RESPONDENT
14. NAME OF PRIMARY RESPONDENT'S SPOUSE (IF APPLICABLE)
15. PERSON ID CODE OF PRIMARY RESPONDENT'S SPOUSE (IF APPLICABLE) 17. PERSON ID CODE OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD
19. GPS COORDINATES OF DWELLING:
20. MAIN LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME:
21. LANGUAGE OF INTERVIEW:
22. TOTAL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONNAIRES ATTACHED:
PUT A CROSS (X) IN BLANK BOXES. NO BOX SHOULD BE LEFT BLANK. PERSON
NO. 1 PERSON NO. 2 PERSON
23. PERSON ID CODES OF RESPONDENTS TO THE INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONNAIRES:
24. INTERVIEW STATUS CODE OF RESPONDENTS TO THE INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONNAIRES:
25. REASON FOR NOT INTERVIEWED
26. MANNER IN WHICH INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED
27. HOUSEHOLD SIZE AND NUMBER OF ADULT MEMBERS FOR 'INTERVIEWED HOUSEHOLDS'
HOUSEHOLD SIZE NUMBER OF ADULT
MEMBERS (18 OR ABOVE) IN THE HOUSEHOLD Enumeration Listing Enumeration 9. SAMPLE NO.: