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Analytical framework for education sector diagnosis

1. Phase 1: Sector diagnosis

1.2 Analytical framework for education sector diagnosis

appropriate priority programmes.

From a more technical point of view, it provides the baseline indicators required for

monitoring the plan implementation later on.

II. Scope

The diagnosis should cover the whole sector of education, not just education services that depend on the ministry of education. In principle, the perspective should be holistic, because all levels (from pre-school to higher) and forms of education (formal and non-formal) are interrelated. In certain instances, separate sub-sector plans will be prepared (e.g. for pre-higher and higher education); yet even in such cases the various sub-sector plans have to be closely coordinated in order to be useful.

It should not be limited to the education system as such, but also cover the environment in which the system is operating. The attention given to contextual factors is an essential characteristic of strategic planning. In an open system such as education, the interactions with the global society are a crucial determinant of its development.

It should not be limited to an analysis of the current situation but include an analysis of past and, to a certain extent, future trends. Trend analysis is essential to understanding the dynamics of educational development. A simple static analysis of the current situation would produce results that are diffi cult to interpret. For example, a secondary school net enrolment rate of 70% in 2008 could be positive or negative: positive if was 60% fi ve years ago, negative if it was 75%.

1.2 Analytical framework for education sector diagnosis

An analytical framework for carrying out a comprehensive sector diagnosis is presented in Box 3 and briefl y commented upon.

Strategic Planning: Techniques and methods

Box 3. Analytical framework for education sector analysis I. Context analysis

• Macro-economic context • Demographic context • Socio-cultural context • Politico-institutional context II. Analysis of existing policies

III. Analysis of the education system performance • Access

• Internal effi ciency • Quality

• External effi ciency • Equity

IV. Analysis of the management capacity V. Analysis of cost and fi nancing

I. Context analysis

Macro-economic context

With a particular emphasis on: past and future economic growth trends, government revenues and budget, and employment trends.

Demographic context

With a particular emphasis on: population growth by specifi c age groups (school age population), issues of geographical distribution and population density, and issues of internal and external migration.

Socio-cultural context

With a particular emphasis on: distribution of wealth, linguistic and cultural differences, and minority groups.

Politico-institutional context

With a particular emphasis on: the role of the state and the private sector, the territorial organization of the government administration and issues of decentralization, the public service situation.

II. Analysis of existing policies

This involves analysis of explicit education policies where they exist (including implicit policies as refl ected in the practical decisions made by the government and in the choice of ongoing education development projects); the overall development policies which have a direct impact on the education policies (e.g. policies refl ected in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and/or National Development Plans); and the international commitments made by the government (e.g. MDGs, EFA Goals, Salamanca Declaration).

Phase 1: Sector diagnosis

III. Performance analysis of the education system

Access

Analysis of the coverage of the education system by level and type of education; the relative importance of the provision of education services by different organizers (public, private, community based, etc.); and the accessibility to different education services in terms of physical accessibility (distance from schools), economic (cost of schooling) and cultural (language, religious or other cultural barriers to schooling).

Common indicators: literacy rate; apparent and net intake rates; gross and net enrolment rates;

age-specifi c enrolment rate; transition rates; percentage of private enrolment; average distance from school; direct and indirect costs of schooling, etc.

Internal effi ciency

Analysis of the extent to which students who enter a given cycle or type of education progress regularly through the system, and the cost implications of their progress.

Common indicators: repetition rates, promotion and drop-out rates; percentage of repeaters; school-life expectancy; survival rates by grade; coeffi cient of effi ciency; years-input per graduate, etc.

Quality

Analysis of the quality of the system, in terms of:

the quality of the inputs provided (teachers, learners, educational facilities,

curricula and learning materials, pedagogical arrangements).

(Common indicators: distribution of teachers by qualifi cation, gender, age; pupil–teacher ratio; distribution of classrooms by condition of the building; distribution of classrooms by availability of different types of equipment; pupil–classroom ratio; average surface available per student; number of textbooks per learner; number of periods of teaching per year);

the processes taking place, especially at school level, to transform these inputs

into results (teaching/learning practices, in-school relationships, interactions with parents and local stakeholders, interaction with the administration).

(Common indicators: student and teacher absenteeism; regularity of meetings of teacher associations or school management committees; regularity of supervision visits, etc.);

the results obtained by the learners (acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and

attitudes).

(Common indicators: pass rates at national examinations; achievement scores on standardized national or international tests, etc.).

External effi ciency

Analysis of the extent to which the investment in education produces the expected social and economic benefi ts for both the individual learner and society. For example: correspondence between education system outputs and needs of the labour market, and between education level attained and social well-being (in terms of income, health status, fertility rate of women, etc.).

Common indicators: rate of unemployment for specifi c age groups by level and type of education;

duration of unemployment for different categories of school leavers and new graduates; relation between level of education and income, health status, etc.

Strategic Planning: Techniques and methods

Equity

Analysis of different types of disparities (between girls and boys, different geographical areas, income groups, socio-economic categories, cultural groups, etc.), with respect to access, internal effi ciency, quality and external effi ciency.

Common indicators: absolute and relative gap analysis, parity indices, Gini coeffi cient, etc.

VI. Analysis of management capacity

Analysis of the capacity of different government structures and other major education organizers (e.g. the private sector) to manage the existing and planned education services effi ciently, including the analysis of major stakeholders.

The idea here is not to carry out a full-fl edged organizational audit of the Ministry (or Ministries) of Education, but rather to review relatively quickly (depending on time and resources available) the major strengths and weaknesses of the education management system at different levels of administration, with a view to identifying the major challenges that will need to be addressed (organizational and human) in order to make the system capable of implementing the forthcoming plan effi ciently. In many instances, this review will serve as the basis for the preparation of a special priority action programme for reinforcing management capacities within the sector (which could in turn include a more in-depth analysis of some specifi c management issues). Present data collection methods and tools seldom provide the information necessary to evaluate the capacities of the organization and the effectiveness of its functioning.

Possible indicators: percentage of management staff with profi les matching their tasks;

percentage of offi cers aware of their tasks; percentage of offi ces or departments with operational plans; percentage of offi ces with necessary IT infrastructure.

VII. Analysis of cost and fi nancing

Analysis of public expenditure on education by level and type of education, category of expenditure, etc. Also an analysis of expenditure on education based on different sources of fi nancing (central state, decentralized authorities, local communities, families, etc.), use of resources within and across different levels and types of education.

Common indicators: percentage of public budget (recurrent, capital) devoted to education, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, percentage of public expenditure devoted to salary cost, public expenditure per student, relative importance of different sources of fi nancing, parental expenditure on education, etc.