상단 PDF The Effect of Bobath Therapy on Balance and Walking in Patients with Stroke

The effect of balance training with plantar flexor stretching on range of motion, balance, and gait in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

The effect of balance training with plantar flexor stretching on range of motion, balance, and gait in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

Such results may indicate that it can be a considerable chal- lenge for stroke patients to maintain balance in dorsiflexion. Posture control to maintain balance is performed by a com- plicated interaction between the sensory and the muscu- loskeletal system and is integrated and modified within the central nervous system by reacting to environmental changes [23,34]. In this context, the experimental group undergoing balance training with plantar flexor stretching might have experienced an improvement in proprioception and balance ability by transmission of somatesthesia from the joint or muscle receptors in the environment in which their bodies swayed and repeated movements were applied by an appro- priate ankle strategy in order to maintain balance. However, there was no significant difference in the time taken in the 10MWT before and after the training, despite improvement in balance ability, perhaps because even the increased angle of the AROM did not reach the functional angle (10 degrees) that is needed for walking. Also, other functions related to walking other than joint angle may contribute to the insigni- ficance.
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The effect of gait training with an elastic ankle-foot orthosis on balance and walking ability of persons with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

The effect of gait training with an elastic ankle-foot orthosis on balance and walking ability of persons with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

Cakar et al. [28] also showed a significant increase in BBS, FRT, and PST values after wearing an AFO and improved overall balance. This study proved to be consistent with the results of pre- vious studies, which means that treadmill exercise with an elastic AFO is effective in increasing the static and dynamic balance ability of stroke survivors. The ankle joint strategy and the hip joint strategy are used to keep the COG within the stability limits. Ankle joint strategy requires movement and stability at the ankle. Limited ankle movement or loss of balance results in the use of hip joint strategies [26]. The use of an elastic orthosis allows patients to freely adjust the an- gle of the ankle. Since the heel is open, more sensations com- ing from the ground can be transmitted to the upper nervous system, thus contributing more to stability at the ankle. In addition, if ankle stability increases, the range of motion at the ankle also increases. For this reason, treadmill training with an AFO has a significant effect on weight transfer abil- ity and dynamic balance ability.
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Effects of 12-week balance training with visual feedback on balance and walking functions in patients with chronic stroke

Effects of 12-week balance training with visual feedback on balance and walking functions in patients with chronic stroke

Dept. of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Cheongju University 요 약 본 연구는 만성뇌졸중 환자의 균형과 보행에 대한 12 주간의 시각 되먹임 균형 훈련의 효과를 비교하기 위 하여 시행되었다 . 연구대상자는 총 20 명으로 실험군과 대조군에 10 명씩 무작위로 할당되었다 . 실험군은 근력 , 자세조 절 그리고 기능적 훈련을 포함한 보존적 물리치료와 시각 되먹임을 이용한 균형훈련을 각각 15 분씩 시행하였으며 , 대조군은 30 분안 보존적 물리치료를 시행하였다 . 균형 및 보행 능력에 대한 측정은 기능적 도달 검사 (Function Reach Test, FRT), 일어서서 걷기 검사 (Timed Up and Go Test, TUGT), 6 분 걷기 검사 (6 Min Walk Test, 6MWT) 사용하여 시행되었다 . 집단 내 비교에서 실험군은 모든 변수에서 통계학적으로 유의하게 향상되는 것으로 나타났으나 (p<.05), 대조군은 모든 변수에서 통계학적으로 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다 (p>.05). 집단 간 비교에서 있어서는 FRT 와 6MWT 에서 통계학적으로 유의하게 향상되는 것으로 나타났다 (p<.05). 본 연구의 결과는 시각 되먹임을 사용한 균형 훈련이 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 균형과 보행 향상을 위해 긍정적으로 사용될 수 있다는 것을 의미한다 . 본 연구의 결과 를 일반화하기 위해서는 보다 많은 대상자들을 포함시킨 장기간의 연구가 계속 이루어져할 것이다 .
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PURPOSE: This study compares the effects of HUBER  rehabilitation and general rehabilitation treatment on the  coordination, balance, and walking ability of stroke patients.

PURPOSE: This study compares the effects of HUBER rehabilitation and general rehabilitation treatment on the coordination, balance, and walking ability of stroke patients.

4. 측정도구 및 방법 1) 안정성 한계(Limits of Stability, LOS) 안정성 한계는 HUBER (HUBER 360® EVOLUTION, LPG System, France)를 사용하여 측정하였다. 장치는 선 자세에서 능동적으로 움직일 때 최대 안정성 한계를 측정하기 위한 것으로 지시하는 8개의 방향인 전방, 후방, 좌측, 우측 및 각각의 사선 방향으로 체중심을 이동할 때 이를 분석하는 방식으로 이루어져 있다. 대 상자는 바로 선 자세에서 어깨너비 정도 다리를 벌리도 록 한 다음 정면에 위치한 모니터를 주시하게 하였다.
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Effect of gait training with additional weight on balance and gait in stroke patients

Effect of gait training with additional weight on balance and gait in stroke patients

Methods Thirty patients with hemiplegia (caused by cerebro- vascular accident) initially participated in this study. All ex- perimental protocols and procedures were explained to each subject and approved by the institutional review board of Sahmyook University, South Korea. All subjects provided written informed consent prior to study enrollment. The in- clusion criteria were as follows: an ability to follow verbal instructions; an Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination score of >21; no obvious limitation in passive range of motion of ankle joints; and an ability to walk 10 me- ters without any form of assistance. Patients with brain stem and/or cerebellum damage or any other disease/condition that could affect gait were excluded. After explaining the purpose of this study, 4 patients decided not to participate while 26 patients agreed to participate in the pre-test.
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The effect and feasibility of knee extension assist orthosis on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients : case study

The effect and feasibility of knee extension assist orthosis on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients : case study

조준행 김로빈 무릎 움직임의 제한이 보행 기전에 미치는 영향 한국사회체육학회지 , . . 2018;72:429-36. 최동성 손민균 발목관절 보조기 착용이 뇌졸중 편마비 환자의 균형에 미치는 영향 한국생활환경학회지 , . . 2014;21(5):837-44. Bedoya-Belmonte JJ, Rodríguez-González MDM, González-Sánchez M, et al. İnter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the extended TUG test in elderly participants. BMC Geriatr 2020;20(1):56.

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The effect of kinesio taping and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on balance and gait function and quality of life in stroke patients

The effect of kinesio taping and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on balance and gait function and quality of life in stroke patients

나) 버그 균형 척도 검사(Berg balance Scale, BBS) 뇌졸중 환자의 앉기, 서기, 자세 변화 시 기능적 균형 능력을 측정하기 위해 버그 균형 척도를 실시하였다[31]. 이 측정도구는 전체 14개의 항목으로 각 항목 당 점수는 0점부터 4점까지의 5점 척도이고 총 점은 56점이며, 점 수가 높을수록 균형이 좋음을 의미한다. 각 항목은 의자 의 등받이에 기대지 않고 바른 자세로 앉기, 한 다리로 서 있기, 두 발을 붙이고 잡지 않고 서있기, 한 발 앞에 다른 발을 일자로 두고 서있기, 왼쪽과 오른쪽으로 뒤돌 아보기, 선 자세에서 앞으로 팔을 뻗쳐 내밀기, 바닥에 있 는 물건을 집어 올리기, 두 눈을 감고 잡지 않고 서 있기, 앉은 자세에서 일어나기 제자리에서 360도 회전하기, 의 자에서 의자로 이동하기, 한 발 앞에 다른 발을 일자로 두고 서있기, 앉은 자세에서 일어나기, 선 자세에서 앉기, 일정한 높이의 발판 위에 발의 교대로 놓기로 구성되어 진다. 버그 균형 척도를 뇌졸중 환자에게 적용하였을 때 신뢰도는 0.98로 매우 높은 신뢰도를 기록한다[32].
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Effects of 3-dimensional balance trainer in combination with a video-game system on balance and gait ability in subacute stroke patients

Effects of 3-dimensional balance trainer in combination with a video-game system on balance and gait ability in subacute stroke patients

Study design This study was a randomized controlled trial. Participants were assigned to either an experimental (n=12) or a control group (n=11) using a random permuted block design and sealed envelopes. The experimental group received addi- tional 3D balance training for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Both groups received a regular 30-min conservative physical therapy session based on neurodevelopmental therapy. Before and after the 20 sessions, walking ability and balance were evaluated by a blinded examiner.

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Effects of elastic band orthosis (aider) on balance and gait in chronic stroke patients

Effects of elastic band orthosis (aider) on balance and gait in chronic stroke patients

Architecture of the elastic band orthosis consists of heel opened toe socks and two straps. Sock length is toe to mid- metatarsal area and the heel is opened. Straps are attached on both sides of the socks. The long strap, which is attached on the medial side, goes over the top of the lateral malleolus and is turned around to the opposite side and then fastened with Velcro and that may pull up the foot so that it can assist in dorsiflexion. The short strap, which is attached on the lateral side of the socks, goes across top of the foot and is fastened with Velcro, which may assist with eversion. This aid may help in prevention of spastic foot drop, leading to improve- ment of walking ability. Heel contact (heel strike, heel off) plays an important role during walking. Through heel con- tact to obtain proprioception, pressure and leg recruit pattern information can be obtained [22]. This movement can act as a switch of the stance phase. Therefore, open-heeled elastic band orthosis can provide greater communication of body scheme information to the central nervous system. In addi- tion, a recent study reported that open-heeled AFO de- creased external rotation of the foot. Elastic band orthosis made of fabric is lighter, cheaper, and convenient for wear- ing shoes compared with conventional plastic AFOs. Light weight of the orthosis is useful for weakened muscles of the legs in stroke patients.
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Effects of body weight-supported treadmill training combined with ball-kicking on balance and gait of subacute stroke patients

Effects of body weight-supported treadmill training combined with ball-kicking on balance and gait of subacute stroke patients

BWSTT is now largely performed to enhance the balance and gait speed of stroke patients in clinical practice [26]. There are, however, conflicting views about the clinical relevance of BWSTT. Middleton et al. [27] reported that there was a significant difference in balance and gait speed between stroke patients who underwent BWSTT and those who underwent overground gait training (OGT), but there was no difference in between group comparison. Combs- Miller et al. [28] reported a significant improvement of self- selected walking speed in the OGT group compared to that in the BWSTT group. Furthermore, Bonnyaud et al. [29] re- ported that the times recorded for the TUG test decreased in both the BWSTT and OGT groups. In the current study, there was a significant improvement in BBS, TUG, 10MWT, and FGA scores with the addition of the task of kicking a ball to an existing 5-week BWSTT. It was indicated that there was a difference of recovery time. This was because the time of onset of subacute or chronic stroke subjects were dif- ferent. This study, using dual-task training, produced dis- tinctly different results compared with previous studies us- ing single task training. Previous studies have indicated that a task-orientated intervention as a complex training method improved both walking distance and walking speed of stroke
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Immediate effects of single-leg stance exercise on dynamic balance, weight bearing and gait cycle in stroke patients

Immediate effects of single-leg stance exercise on dynamic balance, weight bearing and gait cycle in stroke patients

The results of this study show that applying the single-leg stance in hemiplegia patients will increase sensory input and muscles activation of the affected lower extremity and im- prove the asymmetric weight bearing toward a more sym- metric distribution. Additionally, it was demonstrated that voluntary movement of lower-extremity muscles to increase sensory input is more effective. Furthermore, concerning the gait cycle, it was found that the short stance phase time due to the unstable weight bearing of the affected leg improved through the single-leg stance. However, it was not sufficient to affect the symmetry of gait because of the complex mech- anism of gait. In addition, this study was conducted on left hemiplegia patients who have sensory recovery problems involving the disorder of improper recognition of the body due to right brain damage, and the effect was not clearly demonstrated as the measurement was performed only once.
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The effect of treadmill gait training with patellar taping on gait abilities in chronic stroke patients

The effect of treadmill gait training with patellar taping on gait abilities in chronic stroke patients

Patellar taping improves patellar tracking in the patellofe- moral groove and not in simple fixation of muscle in clinical settings. This improvement has a positive effect on the pa- tients' gait without pain, re-aligning complete rangeof mo- tion of these patients [29]. McConnell patellar taping meth- od is a taping method which maintain fixed positional fault by repositioning. This method stimulates skin, tendon, and muscle stimulation thus improving joint position sense and proprioception by reducing pain and enhancing recovery of patients. Ernst et al. [36] showed that patellar taping on the knee joint improved the alignment of the patella and stability of the knee joints. Also, patella taping produced beneficial effects on balance ability of the knee joint and function of the lower extremity. In knee osteoarthritic patients, Crossley et al. [37] confirmed that non-elastic taping immediately soft- ened the inflammated tissues and improved the alignment of the lower extremity, thus enhancing their balance ability and physical posture with decreased pain. Usage of patellar tap- ing created pressure on joints, thus providing stability. This re-alignment of the patella and increased stability of the joint region led to improvement in gait ability.
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The effect of a water exercise on gait characteristics in the elderly post stroke patients

The effect of a water exercise on gait characteristics in the elderly post stroke patients

Data collection The test for this study was conducted before the beginning and after completion of the 3-month water exercise pro- gram. To examine the asymmetry in gait, 3-dimensional mo- tion analysis was performed using eight infrared ray cam- eras and one force platform, and the sampling frequency was set at 100 Hz and 1,000 Hz. First, selected research subjects who agreed to the test were explained about the procedure, and asked to wear the top and bottom tights and put on markers. After sufficient warm-up, they performed the walking motion on a 10-m track installed in this laboratory.
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The effects of treadmill training on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

The effects of treadmill training on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Discussion This study examined the effect of treadmill gait trainig on dynamic balance and gait functions in stroke patients. Stroke patients experience muscle weakness and sensory changes, which can cause dysfunctions, such as difficulties in trunk control, instability of balance, low gait ability, and difficulty in performance of the activities of daily living [18]. Balance is the ability to maintain the center of gravity of the body within the base of support with minimal postural sway [19]. In a study reported by Harris et al. [20], the high risk of fall due to reduced balance and gait disturbance re- mained after discharge and added difficulty in performance of activities of daily living among stroke patients.
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The effects of intensive gait training with body weight support treadmill training on gait and balance in stroke disability patients: a randomized controlled trial

The effects of intensive gait training with body weight support treadmill training on gait and balance in stroke disability patients: a randomized controlled trial

The effect of BWSTT transfers over to ground locomo- tion [24,32]. It is believed that the results of this study may have implications to real life. The limitation of this study was that any effect in chronic stroke patient could not be for certain because subjects were subacute patients. The lasting effect of BWSTT after train- ing was unclear since there was no follow-up. The treadmill speed had been increased to subjective judgment of the patient. Further research is required with the use of heart rate monitoring for deciding treadmill speed and to generalize these findings.
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The immediate effects of patellar taping on balance and gait ability in individuals with chronic stroke

The immediate effects of patellar taping on balance and gait ability in individuals with chronic stroke

We can conclude that applied and re-aligned region of the patella and enhancement of proprioception has led to the im- provement in gait ability. Due to the small sample size, chronological changes in data of stroke patients were difficult to attain. Therefore, it is difficult to generalize the results of this study this study in the clinical world. Also, this study only measured dynamic standing balance among various balance types. In further studies, the effect of patellar taping on various balance types should be investigated to generalize the results on all types of stroke patients. From these limitations, follow-up tests would be appropriate to compensate for the limitations of this study.
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Correlation among triceps surae muscle structure, balance, and gait in persons with stroke

Correlation among triceps surae muscle structure, balance, and gait in persons with stroke

the quadriceps muscle, which serves as an extensor muscle of the knee, has affected the walking speed and postural sta- bility of patients with stroke and there is considerable struc- tural and functional deterioration of the plantar flexor mus- cle compared to healthy adults [3,8]. In particular, chronic stroke survivors with a gait speed slower than 0.8 m/s showed thinner quadriceps muscle thickness and the worst static balance compared to healthy adults [8]. In addition, the volume, moment, and activation of the plantar flexor muscle of stroke survivors were all lower than that of healthy adults, and fascicle lengths and extensibility were decreased due to stiffness [3,9]. A previous study showed that stretching the lower limb muscles, including the plantar flexor muscle, improved ambulation speed and the struc- tural changes in the muscle [9]. However, there are only a few studies that examine how this altered muscle structure affects physical function.
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A Convergence Study on the Effects of functional electrical stimulation with mirror therapy on balance and gait ability in chronic stroke patients.

A Convergence Study on the Effects of functional electrical stimulation with mirror therapy on balance and gait ability in chronic stroke patients.

Dong Hoon Kim 1 , Kyung Hun Kim 2* 1 Physical Therapist, Department of Physcial Therapy, Bundang Jesaeng Hospital 2 Professor, Department of Physcial Therapy, Gimcheon University 요 약 본 연구의 목적은 기능적 전기자극을 병행한 거울치료가 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 균형과 보행능력에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위함이다. 선정기준에 따라 만성 뇌졸중 환자를 35명을 대상으로 세군으로 실시하였다. FMT군은 기능적 전기자 극을 병행한 거울치료(n=11), MT군은 거울치료를 시행하였고(n=12), CON군(n=12)은 일반적인 물리치료를 시행하였다. 훈 련은 1일 30분, 1주 5번, 총 4주간 시행하였다. 중재 전·훈련 4주 후에 균형과 보행능력을 검사실시하였다. 훈련결과 기능적 전기자극을 병행한 거울치료 훈련군이 버그균형척도, 신체의 이동거리, 활보장, 분속수, 그리고 평균보행속도에서는 거울치 료군과 대조군에 비해 통계학적으로 유의한 차이를 보였다. 그러므로 기능적 전기자극 치료와 거울치료 융합은 뇌졸중 환자 의 균형과 보행능력을 위한 효과적인 중재로 활용 될 수 있으며, 다양한 뇌졸중 환자를 위한 지속적인 융합중재개발이 요구 된다.
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Change in blood pressure variability in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its effect on early neurologic outcome

Change in blood pressure variability in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its effect on early neurologic outcome

20. Brott TG, E C Haley J, Levy DE, Barsan W, Broderick J, Sheppard GL, et al. Urgent therapy for stroke. Part I. Pilot study of tissue plasminogen activator administered within 90 minutes. Stroke. Lippincott Wil- liams & Wilkins; 1992; 23: 632–640. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.23.5.632 21. Davalos A, Toni D, Iweins F, Lesaffre E, Bastianello S, Castillo J. Neurological deterioration in acute ischemic stroke: potential predictors and associated factors in the European cooperative acute stroke study (ECASS) I. Stroke. 1999; 30: 2631–2636. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncpneuro0321 PMID:
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A Convergence study on effects of progressive proprioceptive motor program training on proprioception and balance ability in chronic stroke patients.

A Convergence study on effects of progressive proprioceptive motor program training on proprioception and balance ability in chronic stroke patients.

주제어 : 융합, 고유수용성 운동프로그램, 뇌졸중, 고유수용성 감각, 버그균형척도 Abstract This study to investigate the effects of proprioceptive motor program on proprioceptive and balance ability for patients with chronic stroke. Twenty nine subjects were recruited by means of a convenience sampling from Gyeonggi-do B hospital. The subjects were divided into two group: a proprioceptive motor program and general physical therapy(n=15), general physical therapy(n=14). The stimulation and exercises were conducted for 30 min per day, three days, per week for six weeks. All participants were assessed before and after taping training using proprioceptive, berg balance scale(BBS), timed up and go test(TUG), and balance ability was measured using a BioRescue. After training, the change values of the proprioception and balance ability in experimental group were significantly greater than control group(p<0.05). This findings show that progressive and proprioceptive motor program training convergence can be effective for stroke patients proprioception and balance ability. Continued development of convergence interventions for chronic stroke patients with proprioception and balance ability in the practice are suggested.
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