T 3b tumor arising from the floor ofthe fourth ventricle or brain stem and filling the fourth ventricle
T 4 tumor further spreading through the aqueduct of
Sylvius to involve the third ventricle or midbrain, or tumor extending to the upper cervical cord metastasis
This prospective clinicalstudy was conducted on fifty pa- tients with TMJ internal derangement at our institution from June 2012 to January 2015. Criteria patient for selection was based on history and clinical findings characteristic of inter- nal derangement 4 . All patients were initially treated with non- surgical methods and failed to respond to these conservative treatments. A screening TMJ view radiograph was taken in all cases to rule out gross degenerative joint diseases. Patients with degenerative joint diseases causing TMJ dysfunction in- cluding osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout were ex- cluded. Patients with previous surgical intervention for TMJ were also excluded. A total of 50 patientswith TMJ internal derangement with failed conservative management were in- cluded in this study. Of the 50 patients, 20 had nonreducing disc displacement, 16 had reducing disc displacement, and
Our study showed that corticosteroid and/or immunosup- pressant therapy was effective in iNSIP, resulting in an im- provement in lung function after 1 year. Corticosteroid- based treatment was especially effective in iNSIP patients who showed sero-negativity for ANA and those who had a shorter duration of respiratory symptoms. These findings suggest that early treatment with corticoste- roids and/or immunosuppressants could be therapeut- ically beneficial in iNSIP patients, even if the disease is at an early stage. Further prospective, large, and well-designed studies are needed to confirm thefactors af- fecting treatment effect.
주제어 : 특허성과 , 기술이전 , 연구성과 , 연구결과 , 지식재산역량
Abstract The purpose of this research is to deduce the effects factor of R&D output and outcome in the aspect ofthe researcher’s intellectual property capacity, and conduct an empirical analysis to see if there is intermediated effect between cooperation of a patent attorney and output. I applied three step, input (researcher’s intellectual property capacity and intellectual property environment), output (number of patent and SCI paper), outcome (number of technology transfer, profit), and analyzed the effects of researcher’s intellectual property factors on output and outcome through structural equation model. The results are as follows. First, there’s no cooperation between a researcher and patent attorney, the researcher’s knowledge on patent specification had direct effect on the output. Second, a researcher and an patent attorney cooperate, the cooperative activities have complete mediation effect on the output, and the researcher’s will to commercialize the technology has direct effects on the output. Third, the intellectual property environment ofthe research organization gives direct effects on the researcher’s intellectual property capacity, and gives indirect effects on theoutcome. this study suggest that it is important to cooperate with external experts in order to excellent R&D outcome.
A prospective cohort study design was chosen because clinical and radiographic examinations ofthe preoperative factors are the most common procedures used to predict theoutcomeof root canal therapy prior to treatment. However, the level of evidence obtained withthe data is limited owing to the lack of randomization and the predetermined treatment pro- tocol. To ascertain the validity and reliability of these findings, further studies are needed by using a greater number of teeth with preoperative gingival swelling and sinus tract, presence of sensitivity and pain, tendency of unilateral occlusion, or other preop- erative symptoms. Randomized clinical trials should also be performed to evaluate treatment-related fac- tors such as canal enlargement and obturation tech- niques, intracanal medicaments, and instruments for effective disinfection.
The depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, histologic type of cancer cells, and TNM stages are men- tioned as the prognostic factorsaffectingclinical prognosis ofpatientswith gallbladder carcinoma. Like other digestive system cancers, curative resection ofthe tumor is the most critical factor. 1,5,6 Most studies report that 5-year survival rate was poor because early diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specificity oftheclinical symptoms and the disease frequently occurs in the elderly population. Histologically, the radical resection rate is low due to a lot of organ or liver hilum invasion starting from a relatively early stage because ofthe anatomical structure ofthe gallbladder, which has no submucosal layer. 3,8,11 Also, because of abundant lymph nodes adjacent to the gallbladder, it is easily metasta- sized to the lymph nodes around the bile duct, perihilar and pancreaticoduodenal areas. With frequent liver meta- stasis through the venous pattern in the liver, resection can be difficult. 12-14 Therefore, various surgical methods are at- tempted depending on the progress ofthe lesion. For stage T1a, in which the tumor is limited to the mucosa layer, it is generally accepted that simple cholecystectomy may be enough. However, if the tumor has progressed further, standard surgical methods are not consistent.
Methods: Among 130 patients who were diagnosed with malignant tumor of oral, maxillofacial, and surgical treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Chonnam National University Hospital within a period from January 2000 to December 2010, for 11 years, 84 patients were investigated who were followed up for more than 5 years after radical surgery; oral cancer is primary and received only surgical treatment. The survival rate according to gender, age, type and site of cancer, TNM stage, cervical lymph node metastasis and its stage, recurrence or metastasis, time of recurrence and metastasis, and differentiation were investigated and analyzed.
Purpose: The aim ofthe present study was to evaluate the long-term survival of implants retrospectively and determine the risk factors associated with implant failure. Materials and Methods: Of all implants that were placed at the Department of Periodontology ofthe Dental Hospital of Gangneung-Wonju National University from January 1998 to December 2012, 2265 implants that were followed up until June 2013 were included in this study. Data were collected from clinical and radiographic examinations from previous visits. The information gathered included gender, age, smoking status, implant diameter, implant length, surface of implant, location of implant within the dental arch, surgical techniques and existence of complications. Results:
However, these ﬁndings do not support an extrapolation past this time frame. Second, the present study did not have inter-
observer comparisons. Although intraobserver assessment was blinded to which knee received the navigation, intraobserver comparison could produce bias in interpreting the radiographic and CT results. Third, in our series, there were few obese and no morbidly obese patients, a group that may bene ﬁt from com- puter navigation, given their large body habitus and the difﬁ- culty of identifying normal anatomic landmarks for proper component position. However, even if navigation is shown to improve the implant alignment in obese patients, the question remains as to whether it affects the long-term clinical and ra- diographic outcomes.
Unlike regional and specialized emergency medical centers that are designated based on geographical consideration or the number of residents in the given administrative district, local emergency medical institutions are designated though the process ofthe head ofthe institution submitting the necessary documents to the head ofthe competent local authority for review and approval. In particular, at the municipal level of si-gun-gu, the lower-tier administrative districts within a province jurisdiction, any hospital, including Korean traditional medicine hospitals and rehabilitation hospitals, with 30 or more beds are eligible to be designated as a local emergency medical institution. Under such circumstances, situations may arise wherein the immediate delivery of shared or multidisciplinary care or emergency surgery is not possible, often resulting in transfer to another hospital. According to earlier studies, the percentage ofpatients being transferred to another hospital due to lack of treatment capacity at the first hospital was over 70% (Lee et al., 2010; Jeong et al., 2011). In a more recent study (Choi et al., 2018), the patient transfer rate at local emergency medical institutions was reported to be over 37% during the three-year study period.
In contrast to cerebrovascular disease, the correlation between cardiovascular disease and acute cholecystitis has been persistently investigated in many epidemiologic studies. 15 However, a direct correlation is still inex- plicable, and interpretation ofthe results encompasses ob- scurity, and has led to an enormous debate on possible reasons for the correlation. Reflecting on past epidemio- logic studies on either cardiovascular disease or chol- ecystitis, some risk factors for cardiovascular disease co- incide partly with risk factors for cholecystitis. Such study results support the hypothesis that there is a correlation between cardiovascular disease and cholecystitis. More- over, in the San Antonio Heart Study, Diehl et al. 16 re- ported that moderate hypercholesterolemia and moderate to severe hyperlipidemia are observed in patientswith cholecystitis. On the other hand, the level of HDL-choles- terol had an inverse relationship with cholecystitis, al- though this remains to be confirmed by further studies.
Objectives: This study aims to investigate patient cooperation for dental treatments by dividing patients into two groups with different treatment categories, i.e. orthodontic patients versus non-orthodontic patients.
Methods: On December 2016, thestudy conducted survey targeting 311 orthodontic or non-orthodontic patients who are 20 years old or older living in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. The study subject were informed withthe adequate information ofthestudy and signed consent forms. Except for the questionnaire copies from 23 respondents whose answers were insincere those from 288 respondents, equivalent to 92.6% ofthe data collected, were used in the present analysis. Results: This review intended to clarify any factorsaffecting patient cooperation for dental treatments shows that the perception of oral condition, the reliability of dentistry, and the patient preventive cooperation had an effect on patient cooperation for dental treatments. Conclusions: The results summarized above suggest orthodontic patients who are familiar with dental treatments by virtue of their regular visits to dental clinics have higher cooperation for dental treatments compared to non-orthodontic patients, and the higher reliability of dentistry leads to higher patient cooperation for dental treatments.
sleeper . In Sohn et al. , Cronbach's ⍺ for that tool was .84 and in this study, it was .771.
4. Data Collection
This study was performed after approval from the af- filiated Institutional Review Board (IRB) (40525-201811-HR- 100-03). Data collection was conducted from May 2019 to August 2019 from the FCGs' using 3 public health centers in South Korea. The researcher explained the purpose and contents ofthe research to each director of public health centers before getting approvals to visit and collect the data. The researcher explained the purpose and proc- ess ofthe research to the FCGs and PWDs and started da- ta collection when they agreed to participate in thestudy and gave written informed consents. The questionnaires were divided to PWDs and FCGs and the approvals of consent form were obtained by each. If PWDs had cogni- tive or functional problems, their legal representatives gave the approvals. The FCGs answered both question- naires on patient- and caregiver-related factors. For CSDD, the researcher explained the questionnaire to FCGs and helped the FCGs to answer the instrument. When they faced difficulties in filling it due to vision problems, re- searchers read aloud the questions to them and wrote down their responses on their behalf. The survey took about 30 minutes and a small gift was given to each par- ticipant when the survey was completed.
Moreover, patientswith a CI ≥1 at the 12-month follow-up after bonding of fixed retainers had a higher HR for the failure of fixed retainers. It is suggested that more force may be applied to the retainer wire and bonded resin during the meticulous removal of calculus and stain around the fixed retainers and teeth. This may result in the detachment ofthe bonding sites, withthe retainer sometimes remaining in situ. During professional tooth cleaning, the operator can find detached retainers that were unrecognizable to the patient. In this study, we included periodontitis patients who were compliant withthe supportive periodontal treatment after periodontal and orthodontic treatment. If patients had not been followed up regularly, the breakage ofthe fixed retainers could not have been detected and might have resulted in relapse ofthe corrected alignment ofthe teeth. Shaughnessy et al.  reported that a fixed retainer made with dead soft wire was the least likely to create torque problems, but was the most likely to break, and that a fixed retainer made with a flexible twist wire can produce inadvertent tooth movement. They also emphasized the need for regular observation ofpatients wearing fixed retainers because patients might not notice partial debonding.
The present study was a retrospective study including a relative small number ofpatients. Because the mean age was 65.7 years, there was a relatively high mortality rate of 8.1%. In some patientsthe cause of death could not be identiﬁed because they died at home without visiting the hospital. However, concerning the odd ratios of deaths and hospitalizations due to HF, the major cause of higher cardiac event rate in patientswith wider QRS duration and less superior QRS axis could be considered to result from higher hospitalization rate due to HF. Although we could not ﬁnd out all causes of deaths in this study, it could provide insight into the long- term outcome in patientswith chronic RV pacing and the predictors oftheoutcome after a pacemaker insertion.
Hee-Won Jang*, DDS, MSD, Jeong-Kyung Kang, DDS, MSD, Ki Lee, DDS, Yong-Sang Lee, DDS, Pil-Kyoo Park, DDS Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Center, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Korea
PURPOSE. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective studyofpatients receiving root-shaped screw- type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The follow- ing data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient ’ s age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analy- sis was performed withthe use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS. In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P<.05). No significant differences were found in relation to the following factors: gender, diameter and bone quality (P>.05). CONCLUSION. Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. [J Adv Prosthodont 2011;3:204-15]
Although this study has produced meaningful results, it has
several limitations. The primary limitation of this study is that data were collected through convenient sampling, leading to the problem of representativeness. Clinicians were not general- ly cooperative toward participating in the survey, and this study was based only on the responses of those who were willing to participate. The clinicians who participated in the survey were more likely to be familiar with CPG development than those who did not, indicating that the findings of this study may not be representative ofthe general consensus of all clinicians in Korea. In support of this hypothesis, we observed higher recog- nition levels and positive attitudes toward CPGs than anticipat- ed. Nevertheless, the negative concerns and low level of self-ef- ficacy and knowledge reported by clinicians surveyed in this study indicate that education programs are necessary for Kore- an clinicians on the importance and benefits of CPGs. Addition- ally, the survey instrument was originally developed in another language, and data from 2 yr were pooled for analysis because of similarity of responses across the 2 yr. The effect of transla- tion and the discrepancy in response time may also be pointed out as limitations ofthe present study. In the future, research on CPGs should be conducted on a more representative sample, and studies should examine whether physicians in different so- cio-cultural settings show similar propensities toward CPG.
formation in the LCIV. A comparison of limbs with left DVT to limbs without left DVT suggests that iliac vein compression may be associated with a higher percentage of left-sided DVT . In contrast, the compression may prevent the thrombus from migrating into the pulmonary circulation. In a studyof anatomic consideration, patientswith an ipsilateral common iliac vein (CIV) lumen ≤4 mm had a lower risk of developing symptomatic PE compared withpatientswith a CIV lumen exceeding 4 mm . However, anatomic and clinical risk factorsof PE in patientswith LEDVT are unclear, and were investigated presently.
키워드 신규간호사, 업무수행능력, 회복탄력성, 감정노동, 조직사회화
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of new nurse 's resilience, emotional labor, and organizational socialization on clinical competence. Method: The subjects were 182 new nurses. The IBM SPSS 23.0 program was used for data analysis withthe significance level set at .05. Results: Clinical competence was significantly different according to the number of nurses, hospitals where practiced, and nurse image (p <.05). Clinical competence showed a significant correlation with resilience (r = .50) and emotional labor (r = .62) (p <.001). Significant factors influencing clinical competence of new nurses were resilience(β = .567) and emotional labor(β = .332), with a total explanatory power of 50.5% (p <.001). Conclusion: There is a need for a program to improve theclinical competence of new nurses considering influencing factors.
However, a high rate of local recurrence or local disease progression has been associated with conservative treatment approaches [11,16]. In this study, no significant survival ad- vantage was conferred by radical surgery, and indeed patients who underwent more conservative surgery survived longer than patients who underwent radical surgery. Therefore, on this basis, we suggest that a radical surgical approach including hysterectomy should be avoided for patientswith early-stage vaginal melanoma, as it is unlikely to improve their prognosis. However, additional cases need to be examined to confirm this hypothesis because ofthe small sample size ofthe present study.