36. On the surface, some products are easier to sell online than others. For instance, anything that can be delivered in a digital format is likely to do well online and we have already seen the decline of traditional record shops and photo processors. ① However, there are many products which benefit from being touched or experienced in some way before being purchased. ② Thus a customer may wish to test-drive a new car before buying it or feel the weight of a piece of furniture to assess its solidity. ③ Michael de Kare-Silver suggests that a product’s propensity to online selling depends to a certain degree on which of the five senses it appeals to. ④ Although not all the risks of online shopping can be eliminated, a great deal of them can be avoided by choices the customer makes. ⑤ Thus, products which are sold on the basis of sight or sound alone can be sold online relatively easily, whereas those appealing to the senses of touch, taste, or smell cannot. [3점]
⑤ a document that describes the primitive state of the earth
34. The meritocratic emphasis on effort and hard work seeks to vindicate the idea that, under the right conditions, we are responsible for our success and thus capable of freedom. It also seeks to vindicate the faith that, if the competition is truly fair, success will align with virtue; those who work hard and play by the rules will earn the rewards they deserve. We want to believe that success, in sports and in life, is something we earn, not something we inherit. Natural gifts and the advantages they bring embarrass the meritocratic faith. They cast doubt on the conviction that praise and rewards flow from effort alone. In the face of this embarrassment, we . This can be seen, for example, in television coverage of the Olympics, which focuses less on the feats the athletes perform than on heartbreaking stories of the hardships and obstacles they have overcome, and the struggles they have gone through to triumph over injury, or a difficult childhood, or political turmoil in their native land. [3점]
30. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점]
The objective point of view is illustrated by John Ford’s
“philosophy of camera.” Ford considered the camera to be a window and the audience to be ① outside the window viewing the people and events within. We are asked to watch the actions as if they were taking place at a distance, and we are not asked to participate. The objective point of view employs a static camera as much as possible in order to ② avoid this window effect, and it concentrates on the actors and the action without drawing attention to the camera. The objective camera suggests an emotional distance between camera and subject; the camera seems simply to be recording, as ③ straightforwardly as possible, the characters and actions of the story. For the most part, the director uses natural, normal types of camera positioning and camera angles. The objective camera does not comment on or ④ interpret the action but merely records it, letting it unfold. We see the action from the viewpoint of an impersonal observer. If the camera moves, it does so unnoticeably, calling as ⑤ little attention to itself as possible.
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33. Scientists believe that the frogs’ ancestors were waterdwelling, fishlike animals. The first frogs and their relatives gained the ability to come out on land and enjoy the opportunities for food and shelter there. But they . A frog’s lungs do not work very well, and it gets part of its oxygen by breathing through its skin. But for this kind of “breathing” to work properly, the frog’s skin must stay moist. And so the frog must remain near the water where it can take a dip every now and then to keep from drying out. Frogs must also lay their eggs in water, as their fishlike ancestors did. And eggs laid in the water must develop into water creatures, if they are to survive. For frogs, metamorphosis thus provides the bridge between the waterdwelling young forms and the landdwelling adults. [3점]
32. Sometimes it seems that contemporary art isn’t doing its job unless it provokes the question, ‘But is it art?’ I’m not sure the question is worth asking. It seems to me that the line between art and notart is never going to be a sharp one. Worse, as the various art forms ― poetry, drama, sculpture, painting, fiction, dance, etc . ― are so different, I’m not sure why we should expect to be able to come up with . Art seems to be a paradigmatic example of a Wittgensteinian ‘family resemblance’ concept. Try to specify the necessary and sufficient condition for something qualifying as art and you’ll always find an exception to your criteria. If philosophy were to admit defeat in its search for some immutable essence of art, it is hardly through lack of trying. Arguably, we have very good reasons for thinking that this has been one of the biggest wild goose chases in the history of ideas. [3점]
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21. 밑줄 친 have that same scenario가 다음 글에서 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]
There are more than 700 million cell phones used in the US today and at least 140 million of those cell phone users will abandon their current phone for a new phone every 14-18 months. I’m not one of those people who just “must” have the latest phone. Actually, I use my cell phone until the battery no longer holds a good charge. At that point, it’s time. So I figure I’ll just get a replacement battery. But I’m told that battery is no longer made and the phone is no longer manufactured because there’s newer technology and better features in the latest phones. That’s a typical justification. The phone wasn’t even that old; maybe a little over one year? I’m just one example. Can you imagine how many countless other people have that same scenario? No wonder cell phones take the lead when it comes to “ewaste.”
40. 다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
Some companies provide their employees with cafeteria incentive programs. The term cafeteria is used because choices are similar to those in a cafeteria, in which a diner proceeds down the line and chooses those foods that he or she would like and leaves the others. Cafeteria incentives take a variety of forms. In many cases, the company will put aside a pool of money that each individual can spend on these options, such as $3,000 annually. Then, if one person has a family with two small children and wants to use some of this money for a childcare program, the costs are automatically deducted from that employee’s pool of money. Another individual might purchase additional life insurance or medical coverage to meet his or her specific needs. At Lincoln Electric, for example, all payments for worker medical insurance come from the bonus pool. The employees decide what type of coverage they want and the cost is deducted from their bonus. * deduct: 공제하다
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28. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]
What could be wrong with the compliment “I’m so proud of you”? Plenty. Just as it is misguided ① to offer your child false praise, it is also a mistake to reward all of his accomplishments. Although rewards sound so ② positive, they can often lead to negative consequences. It is because they can take away from the love of learning. If you consistently reward a child for her accomplishments, she starts to focus more on getting the reward than on ③ what she did to earn it. The focus of her excitement shifts from enjoying learning itself to ④ pleasing you. If you applaud every time your child identifies a letter, she may become a praise lover who eventually ⑤ become less interested in learning the alphabet for its own sake than for hearing you applaud.
* thermal: 열의, 온도의
[31 ~ 33] 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.
31. What does curiosity mean, and why is it so important? We think of curiosity as exploration: being inquisitive, seeking to learn and understand. Some associate curiosity with being nosy. After all, aren’t we being nosy if we are curious about another person, asking personal questions? We believe there is a difference between the two. Nosy people ask questions and proceed to weigh the answers provided. Their intention is not to learn about the other person, but to compare, perhaps wanting to determine who is better or worse. In contrast, true curiosity . It is about exploring and learning with the goal of greater understanding, which is free from setting values. When curious people ask a question, their only intention is to better understand, whether it is another person, an idea, a place, an origin, or anything that creates an interest in further exploration. [3점]
20. 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?
In business school they teach an approach to management decisions that is designed to overcome our natural tendency to cling to the familiar, whether or not it works. If an executive wants to examine a company policy, he or she first puts aside whatever has been done historically, and focuses instead on what the policy should be. Follow the same approach as you examine how you should look, speak and act to best achieve your objectives. Don’t assume that there is some inherent value to the way you have always done things. Keep focused on becoming the best you can be, not how you have always been.
[41 ~ 42] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
We can start to help our babies learn to love great foods even before they are born. The latest science is uncovering fascinating connections between what moms eat while pregnant and what foods their babies enjoy after birth. Remarkable, but true. Babies in the womb taste, remember, and form preferences for what Mom has been eating. Consider a fascinating study involving carrot juice. As part of the study, one group of pregnant women drank ten ounces of carrot juice four times a week for three weeks in a row. Another group of women in the study drank water. When their babies were old enough to start eating cereal, it was time to look for a difference between the groups. An observer who didn’t know to which group each baby belonged studied the babies as they ate cereal mixed with carrot juice. The babies who this earlier experience of tasting carrot juice in the womb protested and made unhappy faces when they first tasted the juice, whereas the others readily accepted and enjoyed the carrot juice in the cereal. There was a dramatic difference between those who had sampled carrot juice in the womb and those who had not.
27. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]
Suppose, on your wedding day, your best man delivers a heart‒warming, moving toast that makes you ① cry. You later learn he didn’t write it himself but bought it online. Then, would the toast mean less than it ② was at first, before you knew it was written by a paid professional? Most people would agree the bought wedding toast has less value than an authentic ③ one. Although a bought toast might “work” in the sense of achieving its desired effect, that effect might depend on deception. That is, if you ④ purchased a moving masterpiece of a toast online, you would probably cover it up! If a bought toast depends for its effect on concealing its origin, that’s a reason to suspect it’s a corrupt version of the real thing. Wedding toasts are goods ⑤ that can, in a sense, be bought. But buying and selling them diminishes their value.
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20. 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?
When I started my career, I looked forward to the annual report from the organization showing statistics for each of its leaders. As soon as I received them in the mail, I’d look for my standing and compare my progress with the progress of all the other leaders. After about five years of doing that, I realized how harmful it was. Comparing yourself to others is really just a needless distraction. The only one you should compare yourself to is you. Your mission is to become better today than you were yesterday. You do that by focusing on what you can do today to improve and grow.
30. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점]
Random errors may be detected by ① repeating the measurements. Furthermore, by taking more and more readings, we obtain from the arithmetic mean a value which approaches more and more closely to the true value. Neither of these points is true for a systematic error. Repeated measurements with the same apparatus neither ② reveal nor do they eliminate a systematic error. For this reason systematic errors are potentially more ③ dangerous than random errors. If large random errors are present in an experiment, they will manifest themselves in a large value of the final quoted error. Thus everyone is ④ unaware of the imprecision of the result, and no harm is done ― except possibly to the ego of the experimenter when no one takes notice of his or her results. However, the concealed presence of a systematic error may lead to an apparently ⑤ reliable result, given with a small estimated error, which is in fact seriously wrong.
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28. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은?
My dad worked very late hours as a musician ― until about three in the morning ― so he slept late on weekends. As a result, we didn’t have much of a relationship when I was young other than him constantly nagging me to take care of chores like mowing the lawn and cutting the hedges, ① which I hated. He was a responsible man ② dealing with an irresponsible kid. Memories of how we interacted ③ seems funny to me today. For example, one time he told me to cut the grass and I decided ④ to do just the front yard and postpone doing the back, but then it rained for a couple days and the backyard grass became so high I had to cut it with a sickle. That took so long ⑤ that by the time I was finished, the front yard was too high to mow, and so on.
40. 다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]
In 2006, researchers at the University of Missouri took twenty-eight undergraduates and asked them to memorize lists of words and then recall these words at a later time. To test whether distraction affected their ability to memorize, the researchers asked the students to perform a simultaneous task — placing a series of letters in order based on their color by pressing the keys on a computer keyboard. This task was given under two conditions: when the students were memorizing the lists of words and when the students were recalling those lists for the researchers. The Missouri scientists discovered that concurrent tasks affected both memorizing and recalling. When the keyboard task was given while the students were trying to recall the previously memorized words, there was a 9 to 26 percent decline in their performance. The decline was even more if the concurrent task occurred while they were memorizing, in which case their performance decreased by 46 to 59 percent.
27. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 , 틀린 것은 ? [3 ] 점
An ambiguous term is one which has more than a single meaning and ① whose context does not clearly indicate which meaning is intended. For instance, a sign posted at a fork in a trail which ② reads “Bear To The Right” can be understood in two ways. The more probable meaning is that it is instructing hikers to take the right trail, not the left. But let us ③ say that the ranger who painted the sign meant to say just the opposite.
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25. Charles Richard Drew에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?
Charles Richard Drew was born in 1904 in Washington, D.C.
Drew graduated from McGill University Medical School in Montreal, Canada, ranking second in a class of 137. Drew did graduate work and earned his doctorate of medical science from Columbia University. Drew’s research led to the discovery that blood plasma could replace whole blood in transfusions. He set up and administered the British blood bank from 1940 to 1941, and also served as medical director of the American Red Cross project to collect and store blood in 1941. Drew was dropped from the American Red Cross project because he objected to the policy of refusing the blood of black donors. He asserted that there was no scientific difference between the blood of blacks and whites. In 1950, he was seriously injured in a car accident in Alabama and died from having lost too much blood.
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[41~42] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
A new study published in Science reveals that people generally approve of driverless, or autonomous, cars programmed to sacrifice their passengers in order to save pedestrians, but these same people are not enthusiastic about riding in such autonomous vehicles (AVs) themselves. In six online surveys of U.S. residents conducted in 2015, researchers asked participants how they would want their AVs to behave. The scenarios involved in the surveys varied in the number of pedestrian and passenger lives that could be saved, among other factors. For example, participants were asked whether it would be more moral for AVs to sacrifice one passenger rather than kill 10 pedestrians. Survey participants said that AVs should be programmed to be utilitarian and to minimize harm to pedestrians, a position that would put the safety of those outside the vehicle ahead of the driver and passengers’ safety. The same respondents, however, said they prefer to buy cars that protect them and their passengers, especially if family members are involved. This suggests that if both selfprotective and utilitarian AVs were allowed on the market, few people would be willing to ride in the latter
25. Francis Crick 에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은 ? Francis Crick, the Nobel Prize-winning codiscoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule, was born in Northampton, England in 1916. He attended University College London, where he studied physics, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1937. He soon began conducting research toward a Ph.D., but his path was interrupted by the outbreak of World War . During the war, he was involved in naval weapons research, working on the development of magnetic and acoustic mines. After the war, Dr. R. V. Jones, the head of Britain s wartime scientific intelligence, asked Crick to continue the work, but Crick decided to continue his studies, this time in biology. In 1951, Crick met James Watson, a young American biologist, at the Strangeways Research Laboratory. They formed a collaborative working relationship solving the mysteries of the structure of DNA.