In this study, I identified the roles of rematerializing the digital by designing and developing interactive products through several iterations and performing usability and user experience (aesthetic and emotional) in the office and at home. Precisely, the three products designed in the study are presented in a realistic and intriguing direction with four aspects (four digital information, Design for user environment, activation for digital information and cognitive coherence for interaction).
Research Aim and Scope
1 What are the values of rematerialization in the transmission of digital information in the home and office environment. Digital data in this research refers to functions in a dematerialized state that are predominantly used on a smartphone or computer.
Approach: Research Through Design
Moreover, many studies have been developed using the RtD method, including the Strong Concept (Höök & Löwgren, 2012) and cultural probes (Gaver et al., 1999). RtD can connect design researchers and practitioners by considering the response and performance of the designs in the laboratory, field, and showroom (Koskinen et al., 2013).
Why is Rematerializing Required?
- Physical Representation from Dematerialization
- Research Through Rematerializing: Working Proto with Lab and Field Study
Therefore, it is possible to respond after direct manipulation by the user (Fitzmaurice et al., 1995). In response to dematerialization, efforts in the HCI community have sought to integrate digital information with the physical environment ( Van Campenhout et al., 2016 ; Ishii & Ullmer, 1997 ; Vallgårda, 2014 ).
Aspects of Designing Rematerialization
Possibilities of Rematerializing the Digital
From previous studies in the interactive design field, Gaver et al. 2013) proposed a funny design product that can store and display weather information in users' indoor life. Other studies have investigated how individual business people use emails in the professional context (Bälter, 1998; Quaresma et al., 2013).
Design for the Use Environment
Thus, we see opportunities to investigate how dematerialized digital function can be designed with physical form and interaction and what kind of value can be provided to users with an everyday object. In addition, we have designed the device with an analog tray in which the user can place his goods and which is expected to add value to the office.
Activating Rematerialization for the Digital
The second product was installed in a location of the user's choice, whether it was at home or in the office. At the same time, it serves to inform the user about the information in a circular motion (Kim & Eune, 2015).
Rematerializing the Calendar and Weather Information: DayCube
- Purpose of Research
- Design of DayCube
- User Study
- Discussion and Implications
- Limitations and Future Work
Furthermore, materiality affects the different stages of the user's evaluation of the product from the performative stage to the sensory stage (Giaccardi & Karana, 2015). A user commented on weather mapping according to the size of the material. 2009) suggested how emotions can be matched with weight and size properties. Conversely, the smooth surface of the brass gave a relatively positive feeling compared to the cork.
Accordingly, the characteristics of digital information can be expressed by the color and pattern of the material.
Rematerializing the Calendar and Traffic Information: Traffico
- Purpose of Research
- Interacting with the Tangible Timetable
- User Study
- Discussion and Design Implication
By doing this we tried to connect the rotation of the plate and the change of the screen more smoothly. This allowed us to match the Jesmonite cast to the gray color of the E-ink display. A rotation sensor (Figure 5.9.c), connected in parallel to the stepper motor, was used to measure the rotation of the clock plate (Figure 5.9.h).
P1 mentioned: “I was surprised to see that the time was displayed according to the physical rotation of the clock.
Rematerializing Email Data: Maili
Purpose of Research
Email is used as an essential tool for a variety of purposes, from personal chatting and time management (Mackay, 1988) to task management (Bellotti et al., 2003). For example, research has been conducted to measure the frequency of email inbox use over time through a large-scale quantitative survey (Alrashed et al., 2018). Other studies examined how individual business people use email in the work context (Bälter, 1998; Quaresma et al., 2013).
For example, research illustrated how a smartphone's email or message alert led to negative emotional responses (Pielot et al., 2014).
Maili Design and Implementation
We made the color of the nodes so that it is clearly distinguishable from the device body. It aims to let users quickly notice when the node goes out based on the determined reconfirmation time of the emails. Finally, in the first prototype, the movement of the node is realized by using the 5V solenoid.
It was expected that the position of the device would naturally be closer to the hand of the user.
Use of Maili
Record reconfirmation time: In Figure 6.6.c, for valuable emails, the user presses the spin button to open the email reconfirmation time setting window (Figure 6.7.e). If the user sets the reconfirmation time, the display returns to the inbox screen (Figure 6.7.c). a) Email loading, b) New emails or no new email, c) Inbox with email title and sender, d) Email body, e) Reconfirmation timing and f). The user can press the node back (Figure 6.8.b) to its original position to check the registered email, and then the contents of the registered email will be displayed on the screen (Figure 6.8.c).
The user can re-register the email reconfirmation time or delete a registered email by pressing the dial (Figure 6.8.d).
Registered email notification and confirmation: Maili delivers registered emails to the user through protruding nodes, and the user can check these emails by pushing the node back. When there are more than three registered mails, the user presses the node to check the mail, and the nodes pop up again depending on the number of registered mails left. To bring constant torque to the knot, a magnet is attached to the bottom of the knot to secure the corner of the knot as it protrudes forward.
A rotary encoder is used to detect the user's rotary input, and a micro rotary knob is just behind the rotary knob to observe thrust interaction.
Infrared sensors are installed on the back of the nodes that can recognize when the nodes are approaching. P1 contacts third-party manufacturers primarily via email about content related to transaction orders and the company's CEO about project progress. Interview data was analyzed using thematic analysis to determine the results of the study (Maguire & Delahunt, 2017).
The data from the interviews were categorized as follows: 1) usage patterns of the existing email system, 2) general usage patterns and opinions about Maili, 3) Maili as an independent single-purpose device, 4) reconfirmation feature, 5) product design factors, 6 ) product interactions (tray, dial, and nodes) and 7) tray value.
In week 3, P3 used the reconfirmation feature to complete work on the email by the time he signed up. P3 noted, "I made a promise to myself to complete the email work by this hour by recording the reconfirmation time." Anyway, Mail made me think about the time in the email as I dialed the number to record the reconfirmation time.”
The turn-the-knob email sign-up process has been found to help users remember the task in the email.
Discussion and Implementation
Applying interaction considering the characteristics of distinct digital functions, we tried to provide physical interaction that followed the digital functions. In other words, the environment in which the user experiences materialized interactive products will be more valuable, for example, a music player designed on the concept of rematerialization, with a movable physical module that displays the music album cover and lyrics his song (Van Campenhout et al., 2013). Our approach of assigning a physical interaction to each aspect of the digital function, and combining those with an analog part (tray), opened up a space for participants to connect the analog storage function with the digital functionality of Maili's email handling.
Identifying the hidden value of retaining tangible areas and expanding the product's functionality through the combination of the digital and the non-digital is expected to increase.
Findings from Design Iterations
What Kind of Usability Can Rematerialization with Digital Data Support?
As described above, expressing the changing characteristics of digital information through changing the product form or display can lower the information threshold by attracting the user's attention. Through these cases, users were reminded of the importance of digital information and changed their behavior patterns. This may be a result of reflecting the characteristics of digital information and reprocessing the digital information in the intended direction.
Digital information has the property that it can fulfill all functions with extensibility (Van Campenhout et al., 2016).
What Kind of Experiences can Rematerialization with Digital Data Provide?
Through this, it is possible to develop products that can increase the value of usability in the user's environment. In other words, it is identified that it is possible to bring affirmative actions and interests that can promote interaction by evoking some negative emotions in the user. Similarly, in Traffico, participants who experimented in the office expressed the burden of interacting for a long time.
In more detail, Maili added value to the product by combining a non-digital tray used in an office environment.
Consideration and Limitation in the Rematerialized Device (DayCube, Traffico, Maili)
At the same time, Traffico and Maili used personal information related to calendar and email. In previous work, there was a finding that concerns about the security of personal information that could be shared were low for family and teammates during work hours. In contrast, users had a strong concern that personal data could be shared with colleagues outside of work hours (Patil et al., 2005).
Speaking of which, an interactive product used in a work environment or shared space like a bedroom will need additional locking features after users leave that location.
Suggestion for Future Rematerializing Devices
In this study, the user's unintended action was taken from the ordinary section, such as a tray in the Maili. In this study, users showed that they applied the product's function in the way that suits them. In this regard, a physical product has a limitation in the form, interaction and function because it is difficult to change it according to the user's needs.
For example, the existence of a tray in the digital device helps to maximize the usability of the device.
- How has the Dissertation Achieved its Proposed Goals?
- Designing for Rematerialization
- Expected Contribution
- Future Study
Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI EA. Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI EA. I Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (s. 375-378).
I Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (s.