In particular, the pandemic has attacked the classical music industry, which has focused on the offline experience. In the classical music field, there are three factors to creating music, which is a relationship between audience, composer and musician.
- Project Scope and Audience
- Project Objectives
In the classical music area, the concert was constantly reduced compared to the end of 2019 (KOPIS, 2020). The main focus of this project is to address the digital transformation in the classical music area for collaboration between musicians.
Change of Classical Music in Pandemic
- Digital Transformation and Classical Music
- Classical Music Collaboration and Telematic Performance
- Digital Music Score and Digital Music Libraries
In exploring the paradigm of mobile music performance, future work should focus on the social and geographic elements of performance (Oh et al., 2010). Musical collaboration in music making is important, but one of the important factors is also the way of delivering music through a digital channel.
Conclusion of Related Works
Double Diamond Model and Agile Design Process
- Domain Exploration
- Design Definition
- Concept Development & Concept Delivery
Based on the main user stories, which held a co-design workshop to disseminate ideas, the main features were identified through the categorization process after the ideas were listed. After examining the features of other competing services based on key features, a verification interview is conducted to evaluate essential screen master functions.
Domain Context Exploration
- Immersion Ethnographic using Digital Environment in Daily Life
- Forwarded (Online or Offline) Observation about Domain Context
Therefore, an attempt was made to continuously expose related information in the Classical Music domain for this project. By regularly exposing intentional keywords in the first set, the context can be established with content that is then naturally exposed.
The feedback that takes place between the ensemble was recorded as text on the score. The cello to come faster.” “The cello is too big for this part.” We usually get feedback in sections. (Participants AB, line number: 223&93).
Domain Exploration Outcomes
- The Characteristics of Performers
- The Classification Model of the Classical Music Interaction
- User Story
- Design Categories
The system map is constructed based on the online data and interaction structure of the music experience (see Figure 18). There are four interaction elements: interaction with 1) musical instruments, 2) experience through interaction with music, 3) communication with others and 4) experience through the exchange of performance. Interaction with musical instruments is the experience of the performer's interaction with the instrument, related to the characteristics of the instrument, as opposed to performance, and can be an interaction felt through the use of the instrument. Experience through interaction with music is the individual's interaction with music, referred to the experience of the elements of the music itself.
In this respect, the interaction with the music to the individual is also used as a main element. Based on the persona and interaction structure of the music context, the user story is written. Improve my ability to play music 15 User Practice simulation Before / after practice Understand the music well.
The final summary of the user story is expressed in sentences based on a user benefit based on the user story and the interaction structure of the musical context. I hope that the quality of the whole ensemble will be higher, having the effect of exercising together, even when we exercise alone!".
Co-design Workshop for Ideation
- Co-creation Workshop Results
There are 1) Set goals and check achievements, 2) Self-feedback, 3) Problems during practice, 4) My practice diary and 5) Using the practice diary. Using practical data through sharing on SNS JWB02 History-based benchmarking / Checkable at any time / Shared with group members. Real-time sharing of comments related to JWC02 Ensemble exercises through non-real-time video sharing.
The key words written by the participants were Using Competition Psychology, Visualizing Practice Time, Creating a Good Source of Practice Results, Providing Feedback to Audiences or Professional Musicians, and Representing Different Ways Such as Visualization. Using competition psychology / Visualizing practice time / Creating a good source of practice results Using recorded practice reports externally (commercially) and then feeding them back to the audience JHD01. In the idea sheet of the first user story, five keywords were presented as examples: setting practice goals and monitoring goal achievement, feedback about practice to self, problem issues during practice, and use of practice documents.
Keywords derived from the categorization of these points of pride and their detailed ideas include competitive psychological use, exercise time visualization, exercise outcome records, feedback from other experts, and records by means other than audio. There is real-time communication and communication through storage in online music communication and identification sheet based on user stories.
Design Concept Features
- Main Features for Concept Design
Opportunities for Digital Transformation
In-depth Interview for G Concept Validation (1 st Iteration)
- Concept Validation Results
The interview questions consist of four categories, which are background information about the participant's musical experience, their personal practice process, their group practice process, and their performance experience. Music practice (outside the instrument) / Musical communication Important factors in improving one's own skills in personal practice. Differences between individual practice and group practice Important factors for a successful concert performance in a group Performance experience.
The verification interview process was conducted by first presenting a functional description of the key feature through a paper farm, and then asking each feature's concept about Plus, Minus, Interests and additional idea. Post-it notes were used in the process, and in some cases validation interviews for each function were conducted through speaking (See Figure 29). Presentations of basic ideas were written on post-its during the interview through the Affinity Diagram and matched to each feature.
The main opinion was that even if each element makes sense, it wouldn't be necessary if it wasn't intuitive, and recording audio is enough for individual recording and sharing. Score elements were used primarily as a personal aspect of recording and as a communication tool with other performers.
Auto-ethnography for Detail Design G (2 nd Iteration)
- Transmission of Musical Interpretation from Conductor
- Feedback Recording during Musical Collaboration
When conducting the ensemble with new music, the conductor determines the overall tone of the music and then goes through each section in detailed practice (EA01, EB03). Section concertmaster conducts on detailed technical approach, such as the direction of the bow in section (EC03). There are three insights of feedback based on musical interpretation delivered during the ensemble practice of the conductor, which create the overall tone and shape of the music.
Even with musical symbols of the same score, the unity of the technical approach of music is particularly important visually. It is important to start and end with the same atmosphere as the general gestures of the beginning and the end of the ensemble. In particular, in the new music, when there were many changes in the direction of the bow or musical symbol.
As a record of the dynamics of the music, there is a record of musical symbols for additional instructions such as "piano", "forte" and "crescendo", although they are not written as musical symbols of the provided musical score. It was necessary to provide a guide to basic musical gestures such as the direction of the bow.
The Design of Legato
- Design Rationale
- Visual Design
Legato seeks to solve the problems of the existing offline music collaboration process and ensemble mode and provide performers with a better music collaboration experience. Performers preparing for a concert need space for rehearsal and performance and to schedule time between performers. Unlike in the past, when there was little opportunity for the development of musical diversity by limiting the methods of musical collaboration, Legato has the expected effects of tentative musical development through the collaboration of these different genres of music.
It will be used as a new music collaboration solution for the coming generation of the new normal due to Covid-19. The traditional and opulent atmosphere, reminiscent of the classic architecture of classical music and the visual aspect, was designed to convey creative possibilities to the users. Aesthetic keywords provide the visual orientation that the project aims to provide to users.
Keywords relate to individuals as they go top left and bottom right, keywords presented for the group. Based on these seven top keywords, they showed the relationship between each keyword and the detailed keyword (See Figure 37).
Design Concept of Legato
- Basic Information Access
- Online Collaboration
- Archiving as Digital Music Score
- Integrated Music Library
- Cross-Device Synchronization
The user can share information such as performance dates, coordination of practice schedules, team member relationships and rules related to the ensembles. Through the application, users complete their social communities by entering information about group members belonging to the same orchestra and registering the content (see Figure 40). Functionally, it has continuity of purpose compared to the video upload, a single shot.
Indirect collaboration is a function that allows you to place notes on other performers' music or practice listening to the bass sound. The virtual space by instrument section is set up so that musicians can adjust pitch through the layout (Faller, 2004). The bar line of the musical score is the same, so when viewed with the score, feedback can be intuitively controlled (See Figure 46).
In the first case, it is exposed to the same environment as a practice room where you practice directly. Legato provides various types of scoring interfaces that maintain the connection of information based on the user's usability characteristics in the mobile environment and the web environment.
DISCUSSION & LIMITATION
There was a limitation of the research into the position of the leader if there was a relationship between a musician and a leader. In the structure of amateur musical cooperation, the role of professional musicians is one of the key factors. Information about professional musicians or conductors within the section was only provided through interviews with amateur musicians.
HG Ensemble It can separately check the problem of ensemble practice and personal practice while listening to a recording. It can provide instant feedback based on the amount of practice and sharing comments with other artists. Pause It can automatically stop at a certain time and record music. Just like Stage It can check the performance percentage by date in the practice diary.
It can record the actual playing time and the total time spent every day and display them together. My practice diary / Use of practice diary My practice .. diary It can be used together with text and audio. It can share practice videos and practice virtually to perform or collaborate with other artists.
JW ERROR It can share similar error parts with other artists, such as SNS sharing platform. It can compare an artist's practice data from the past to the present to demonstrate growth.