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C. Decision making

Ⅵ. Conclusion and Future Research

This capstone aimed to analyze the causality of climate change and water disasters, and to propose sustainable water management strategies in the Seomjin River basin, which is safe for floods and droughts. To accomplish this, I reviewed the literature and explored the evolution of climate change definition, the current state and future prospects of climate change. In this process, it was confirmed that climate change has a close relationship on water resources.

Climate change affects the quantity and quality of water. The influences are very negative, such as intensified typhoons and rains, inundation and landslides, shorter drought cycles, and unimproved water quality. This study focused on specific stakeholders exposed to various water use environments and issues in the Seomjin River basin. Using preliminary modeling and expert interviews, 1) the expertise of water management instruments, 2) the level of acquisition and recognition of flood and drooping information, and 3) the transparency, equality, and execution of the decision-making process were analyzed. There are three main problems that have been drawn. First, local governments that need primary response to disasters lack water management organizations, making it difficult to respond effectively. Second, residents have a low level of information and awareness about disaster situations such as droughts. Third, due to complex interests, the decision-making process for water management policies is not transparent and inefficient.

This paper proposed three solutions to the problems. The first is to strengthen expertise and inter-agency cooperation capabilities to manage thorough risks. In-depth research and expert training make it possible to more accurately predict changed rainfall patterns caused by climate change, and resource sharing between institutions helps to efficiently utilize limited water resources. Second, water-related education and information provision should be activated for the public. The government must provide information promptly in accordance with regional

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characteristics and the level of the people and guarantee the people's right to know through various education programs. This method facilitates the public's understanding of water management policies and encourages their participation to come up with reasonable water management policies. Tietenberg and Lewis (2018) have drawn attention to the importance of information:

Effective private action depends on good information on both the nature of risks and options for adapting to them. Much of this information about future risks is a public good, which means that it will be undersupplied unless the government supplies it or participates in its supply. (p. 417)

Lastly, a balanced and reasonable water management plan should be established away from political issues. At all stages of policy establishment, public opinions must be reflected and free participation must be guaranteed. The important thing is that all participants should try to make rational decisions so that the decision-making process is not distorted by a small number of biased people. Extensive research has shown a tendency towards short-sighted decision- making due to human selfishness (Healy & Lenz, 2014; Achen & Bartels, 2017; Han & Kim, 2022). Ostrom (1990) presented eight principles for managing common resources. These principles clarify the rules between those who use the resources, all stakeholders have the right to participate in making or revising the rules, and allows for monitoring and incremental sanctions against violations of the rules. Section 4 showed that the excessive representation of some civic groups does not properly reflect the opinions of residents who are close stakeholders.

For sustainable water management in the Seomjin River basin, general residents should be encouraged to participate. To do so, discretion must be expanded along with the responsibilities imposed on the government and public institutions to fairly organize the committee and reasonably supplement the regulations without external pressure or interference.

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There is a proverb that says “To lock the stable door after the horse is stolen.” As everyone knows, this proverb is often used to mean that it needs to be prepared before problems arise.

However, in flood and drought management, it seems that there are many cases in which the horse is stolen but the stable door is still not locked. This is because, no matter how extreme the flood, the serious situation is forgotten after the flood season, and even if the worst drought is experienced, once the drought is somewhat relieved by rain, the person becomes indifferent again. We should not be stingy about supplementing the level of response and investment to overcome the wave of climate change. Furthermore, in order to achieve a regional consensus on water management policies, community awareness of the future water crisis must be accompanied. It is worth asking whether the results of this study apply only to the Seomjin River basin or more widely. I believe that the context under investigation is typical of most countries suffering from water disasters. These strategies will contribute to the design and implementation of sustainable policies for policymakers, central and local officials, residents and NGOs. Turning climate change into an opportunity, not an ordeal, can only be done through scientific and systematic water management policies. If we all become masters of water management and work together, the advanced water management country free from flood and drought will eventually be realized.

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