변형 문제

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(1)

변형 문제 (160문제)

18번 ~ 40번 (도표/실용문/장문 제외) 선답형 문제 : 80문제

서술형 문제 : 80문제

(2)

cony 선생님 규림재희아빠 선생님 다알 선생님 다혀니 88 선생님

달링 선생님 바보왕자 선생님 서희쌤 선생님 올리비아배 선생님

야옹48 선생님 영어 선생님 장돼지 선생님 준현아빠 선생님

파란소 선생님 푸른돌 선생님 흑곰 선생님 쏭쌤 선생님

ciero_신성814 선생님

(경북성주/Kim's Eng)

Henna 선생님

(경기광명/이화영어)

jeongs123 선생님

(대구/학문당 입시학원)

Landon 선생님

(제주/메드스쿨)

neown 선생님

(경기양평/BOM학원)

Paulk 선생님

(인천/부개제일학원)

김은주 선생님

(대구/김쌤영어교실)

김진아 선생님

(인천/주안정문학원)

내일은 없다공 선생님

(남양주별내/챌린지영어학원)

동깨비 선생님

(부산/봉선생영어교습소)

문정혁 선생님

(경기평촌/록키 영어학원)

무한긍정 선생님

(경기김포/GTC영어)

박종근 선생님

(인천/유빅학원 동인천본원)

서원이고모 선생님

(부산영도/과외)

에이투지 선생님

(제주/에이투지 영어)

전진아 선생님

(인천/Jina English 송도점)

좋은날이다 선생님

(경남김해/김태이 영어)

이상 문제출제를 위해 수고하신 33명의 선생님들께 감사를 드립니다.

검수를 위해 수고하신 아잉카 스텝진 25명의 선생님들께 감사를 드립니다.

기획 편집 esperanto79 선생님(아잉카 아카데미 거제 캠퍼스) 최종 감수 Isaac 선생님

Our English Cafe 변형문제 검수

Our English Cafe 변형문제 편집 및 감수

Our English Cafe 변형문제 TFT 9기 – 2018년 9월 고1 학력평가

Our English Cafe 변형문제 제작위원

(3)

1.

다음 글에 드러난 필자의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은?

1)

[201809H1_18목적추론_변형]

Dear Mr. Stevens,

This is a reply to your inquiry about the shipment status of the desk you purchased at our store on September 26. Unfortunately, the delivery of your desk will take longer than expected due to the damage that occurred during the shipment from the furniture manufacturer to our warehouse. We have ordered an exact replacement from the manufacturer, and we expect that delivery will take place within two weeks.

As soon as the desk arrives, we will telephone you immediately and arrange a convenient delivery time.

We regret the inconvenience this delay has caused you.

Sincerely, Justin Upton

① desperate ② stressful ③ apologetic

④ nervous ⑤ ashamed

2.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현 으로 가장 적절한 것은?

2)

[201809H1_19심경추론_변형]

Garnet blew out the candles and (A) [lay down / laid down]. It was too hot even for a sheet. She lay there, sweating, listening to the empty thunder that brought no rain, and whispered, “I wish the drought would end.” Late in the night, Garnet had a feeling that something she had been waiting for was about to happen. She lay quite still, listening. The thunder (B) [rumbling / rumbled] again, sounding much louder.

And then slowly, one by one, as if someone were dropping pennies on the roof, came the raindrops.

Garnet (B) [held / was held] her breath hopefully. The sound paused. “Don’t stop! Please!” she whispered.

Then the rain burst strong and loud upon the world.

Garnet leaped out of bed and ran to the window. She shouted with joy, “It’s raining hard!” She felt as though the thunderstorm was a present.

(A) (B) (C)

① lay down rumbling held

② lay down rumbled held

③ laid down rumbling held

④ laid down rumbled was held

⑤ lay down rumbling was held

3.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

3)

[201809H1_20주장추론_변형]

How do you encourage other people when they are changing their behavior? Suppose you see a friend who is on a diet and has been losing a lot of weight.

It’s tempting to tell her that she looks great and she must feel wonderful. It feels good for someone to hear positive comments, and this feedback will often be encouraging. However, if you end the discussion there, then the only feedback your friend is getting is about her progress toward an outcome. Instead, continue the discussion. Ask about what she is doing that has allowed her to be successful. What is she eating? Where is she working out? What are the lifestyle changes she has made? When the conversation focuses on the process of change rather than the outcome, it reinforces the value of creating a sustainable process.

① Talk about Process When on Diet

② Give Your Friends the Affirmative Advice

③ Make a Specific Plan to Lose Your Weight

④ Advising: Consider the Situation, Not Result

⑤ Focus on the Bright Side to Improve Gradually

4.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

4)

[201809H1_21요지추론_변형]

It might seem that praising your child’s intelligence or talent would boost his self­esteem and motivate him. But it turns out that this sort of praise backfires.

Carol Dweck and her colleagues have demonstrated the effect in a series of experimental studies: “When we praise kids for their ability, kids become more cautious. They avoid challenges.” It’s as if they are afraid to do anything that might make them fail and lose your high appraisal. Kids might also get the message that intelligence or talent is something that people either have or don’t have. This leaves kids feeling helpless when they make mistakes. What’s the point of trying to improve if your mistakes indicate that you lack intelligence?

① Way of Praising

② Learning by Mistake

③ What Do Children need?

④ The Importance of Learning

⑤ Is It Right to Praise Kids Talent?

(4)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type A

5.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

5)

[201809H1_22주제추론_변형]

Fast fashion refers to trendy clothes designed, created, and sold to consumers as quickly as possible at extremely low prices. Fast fashion items may not cost you much at the cash register, but they come with a serious price: tens of millions of people in developing countries, some just children, work long hours in dangerous conditions to make them, in the kinds of factories often labeled sweatshops. Most garment workers are paid barely enough to survive.

Fast fashion also hurts the environment. Garments are manufactured using toxic chemicals and then transported around the globe, making the fashion industry the world’s second­largest polluter, after the oil industry. And millions of tons of discarded clothing piles up in landfills each year.

* sweatshop: 노동착취공장

① Fast Fashion: Can It Be Sustainable?

② The Environmental Costs of Fast Fashion

③ Fast Fashion: From Challenge to Solution

④ Recycling Won't Fix the Fast Fashion Problem

⑤ What Is Fast Fashion and What Is the Problem with It?

6.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임 이 적절하지 않은 것은?

6)

[201809H1_23제목추론_변형]

If you want to ① protect yourself from colds and flu, regular exercise may be the ultimate immunity­booster.

Studies have shown that moderate aerobic exercise can more than halve your risk for respiratory infections and other common winter diseases. But when you feel

sick, the story changes. “Exercise is great for

② prevention, but it can be lousy for therapy,” says David Nieman, the director of the Human Performance Lab. Research shows that ③ moderate exercise has no effect on the duration or severity of the common cold.

If you have the flu or other forms of fever­causing systemic infections, exercise can ④ slow recovery and, therefore, is a bad idea. Your immune system is working overtime to fight off the infection, and exercise, a form of physical stress, makes that task

⑤ easier.

* respiratory: 호흡기의 ** lousy: 나쁜

7.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현 으로 가장 적절한 것은?

7)

[201809H1_25내용일치_변형]

Eddie Adams was born in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. He developed his passion for photography in his teens, (A) [which / when] he became a staff photographer for his high school paper. After graduating, he joined the United States Marine Corps, where he captured scenes from the Korean War as a combat photographer. In 1958, he became staff at the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, a daily evening newspaper (B) [publishing / published] in Philadelphia.

In 1962, he joined the Associated Press (AP), and after 10 years, he left the AP (C) [to work / working] as a freelancer for Time magazine. The Saigon Execution photo that he took in Vietnam earned him the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography in 1969. He shot more than 350 covers of magazines with portraits of political leaders such as Deng Xiaoping, Richard Nixon, and George Bush.

(A) (B) (C)

① which publishing to work

② which published working

③ when publishing to work

④ when published working

⑤ when published to work

8.

다음 글을 읽고 필자가 아버지에게 느꼈을 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은?

8)

[201809H1_28어법추론_변형]

My dad worked very late hours as a musician ― until about three in the morning ― so he slept late on weekends. As a result, we didn’t have much of a relationship when I was young other than him constantly nagging me to take care of chores like mowing the lawn and cutting the hedges, which I hated. He was a responsible man dealing with an irresponsible kid. Memories of how we interacted seem funny to me today. For example, one time he told me to cut the grass and I decided to do just the front yard and postpone doing the back, but then it rained for a couple days and the backyard grass became so high I had to cut it with a sickle. That took so long that by the time I was finished, the front yard was too high to mow, and so on.

* sickle: 낫

① thankful ② respectful ③ embarrassed

④ disappointed ⑤ zealous

(5)

9.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임 이 적절하지 않은 것은?

9)

[201809H1_29어휘추론_변형]

People are innately ① inclined to look for causes of events, to form explanations and stories. That is one reason storytelling is such a persuasive medium.

Stories resonate with our experiences and ② provide examples of new instances. From our experiences and the stories of others we tend to form generalizations about the way people behave and things work. We

③ distribute causes to events, and as long as these cause­and­effect pairings make sense, we use them for understanding future events. Yet these causal attributions are often mistaken. Sometimes they implicate the wrong causes, and for some things that happen, there is no single cause. Rather, there is a ④ complex chain of events that all contribute to the result; if any one of the events would not have occurred, the result would be different. But even when there is no single causal act, that doesn’t stop people from ⑤ assigning one.

* resonate: 떠올리게 하다 ** implicate: 연관시키다

10.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

10)

[201809H1_30지칭추론_변형]

Leaving a store, I returned to my car only to find that I’d locked my car key and cell phone inside the vehicle. A teenager riding his bike saw me kick a tire in frustration. “What’s wrong?” he asked. I explained my situation. “But even if I could call my husband,” I said, “he can’t bring me his car key, since this is our only car.” He handed me his cell phone. The thoughtful boy said, “Call your husband and tell him I’m coming to get his key.” “Are you sure? That’s four miles round trip.” “Don’t worry about it.” An hour later, he returned with the key. I offered him some money, but he refused. “Let’s just say I needed the exercise,” he said. Then, like a cowboy in the movies, he rode off into the sunset.

① How to Return Your Favor

② Aid From An Unexpected Visitor

③ Bicycles Are Better than Vehicles

④ A Woman Suffering Forgetfulness

⑤ Some Ways to Keep Away From Mistakes

11.

다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?

11)

[201809H1_31빈칸추론_변형]

One CEO in one of Silicon Valley’s most innovative companies has what would seem like a boring, creativity­killing routine. He holds a three­hour meeting that starts at 9:00 A.M. one day a week. It is never missed or rescheduled at a different time. It is mandatory ― so much so that even in this global firm all the executives know never to schedule any travel that will conflict with the meeting. At first glance there is nothing particularly unique about this. But what is unique is the quality of ideas that come out of the regular meetings. Because the CEO has eliminated the mental cost involved in planning the meeting or thinking about who will or won’t be there, people can focus on creative problem solving.

① advantage of regular life for health

② necessity of critical thinking for work

③ benefit of invariable schedule in workplace

④ importance of strict punctuality in workplace

⑤ disadvantage of mandatory atmosphere in workplace

12.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

12)

[201809H1_32빈칸추론_변형]

When meeting someone in person, body language experts say that smiling can portray confidence and warmth. Online, however, smiley faces could be doing some serious damage to your career. In a new study, researchers found that using smiley faces makes you look incompetent. The study says, “contrary to actual smiles, smileys do not increase perceptions of warmth and actually decrease perceptions of competence.” The report also explains, “Perceptions of low competence, in turn, lessened information sharing.” Chances are, if you are including a smiley face in an email for work, the last thing you want is for your co­workers to think that you are so inadequate that they chose not to share information with you.

① Don‘t Save Smileys too much

② Who can Laugh at the Smiling?

③ Smile: the First Step to Problem Solving

④ Competence: the Basic on Information Sharing

⑤ Smileys on Online: Symbol of the Incompetence

(6)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type A

13.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

13)

[201809H1_33빈칸추론_변형]

How funny are you? While some people are natural humorists, being funny is a set of skills that can be learned. Exceptionally funny people don’t depend upon their memory to keep track of everything they find funny. In the olden days, great comedians carried notebooks to write down funny thoughts or observations and scrapbooks for news clippings that struck them as funny. Today, you can do that easily with your smartphone. If you have a funny thought, record it as an audio note. If you read a funny article, save the link in your bookmarks. The world is a funny place and your existence within it is probably funnier.

Accepting that fact is a blessing that gives you everything you need to see humor and craft stories on a daily basis. All you have to do is document them and then tell someone.

* preparatory: 준비의

① We Are Natural Humorists

② What Makes You a Humorist?

③ Funny Comedians' Special Gadget

④ An Innate Talent to Be a Humorist

⑤ Importance of Writing Something on the Paper

14.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현 으로 가장 적절한 것은?

14)

[201809H1_34빈칸추론_변형]

If you ask a physicist how long it would take a marble to fall from the top of a ten­story building, he will likely answer the question by assuming that the marble falls in a vacuum. In reality, the building is surrounded by air, (A) [that / which] applies friction to the falling marble and slows it down. Yet the physicist will point out that the friction on the marble is so small that its effect is negligible. Assuming the marble falls in a vacuum (B) [simplify / simplifies] the problem without substantially affecting the answer. Economists make assumptions for the same reason: Assumptions can simplify the complex world and make it easier to understand. To study the effects of international trade, for example, we might assume that the world (C) [consists of / is consisted of] only two countries and that each country produces only two goods. By

doing so, we can focus our thinking on the essence of the problem. Thus, we are in a better position to understand international trade in the complex world.

* negligible: 무시할 수 있는

(A) (B) (C)

① that simplify consists of

② that simplifies is consisted of

③ which simplify is consisted of

④ which simplifies is consisted of

⑤ which simplifies consists of

15.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말 로 가장 적절한 것은?

15)

[201809H1_35무관한문장_변형]

Water is the ultimate commons. Once, watercourses seemed (A) [boundless / limited] and the idea of protecting water was considered silly. But rules change. Time and again, communities have studied water systems and redefined wise use. Now Ecuador has become the first nation on Earth to put the rights of nature in its constitution. This move has proclaimed that rivers and forests are not simply property but maintain their own right to (B) [deteriorate / flourish].

According to the constitution, a citizen might file suit on behalf of an injured watershed, recognized that its health is (C) [trivial / crucial] to the common good.

More countries are acknowledging nature’s rights and are expected to follow Ecuador’s lead.

(A) (B) (C)

① limited deteriorate trivial

② limited flourish trivial

③ boundless flourish crucial

④ boundless deteriorate crucial

⑤ boundless flourish trivial

(7)

16.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말 로 가장 적절한 것은?

16)

[201809H1_36순서추론_변형]

No one likes to think they’re average, least of all below average. When asked by psychologists, most people rate themselves above average on all manner of measures including intelligence, looks, health, and so on. Self­control is no different: people consistently (A) [undervalue / overestimate] their ability to control themselves. This over­confidence in self­control can lead people to assume they’ll be able to control themselves in situations in which, it turns out, they can’t. This is why trying to stop an unwanted habit can be an extremely (B) [rewarding / frustrating] task.

Over the days and weeks from our resolution to change, we start to notice it popping up again and again. The old habit’s well­practiced performance is beating our conscious desire for change into (C) [revival / submission].

(A) (B) (C)

① undervalue rewarding revival

② undervalue frustrating revival

③ undervalue rewarding submission

④ overestimate frustrating submission

⑤ overestimate rewarding revival

17.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

17)

[201809H1_37순서추론_변형]

Trade will not occur unless both parties want what the other party has to offer. This is referred to as the double coincidence of wants. Suppose a farmer wants to trade eggs with a baker for a loaf of bread. If the baker has no need or desire for eggs, then the farmer is out of luck and does not get any bread. However, if the farmer is enterprising and utilizes his network of village friends, he might discover that the baker is in need of some new cast­iron trivets for cooling his bread, and it just so happens that the blacksmith needs a new lamb’s wool sweater. Upon further investigation, the farmer discovers that the weaver has been wanting an omelet for the past week. The farmer will then trade the eggs for the sweater, the sweater for the trivets, and the trivets for his fresh­baked loaf of bread.

* trivet: 삼각 거치대

① Why Do People Like Omelet?

② The Easiest Way of Getting Trivet

③ The Story of Unfortunate Farmers

④ Fair Trade : Trading Eggs for The Sweater

⑤ The Feature of the Trade : Satisfying Each Other

18.

다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

18)

[201809H1_38문장삽입_변형]

Have you heard someone say, “He has no one to blame but himself” for some problem? In everyday life we often blame people for “creating” their own problems. Although individual behavior can contribute to social problems, our individual experiences are often largely beyond our own control. They are determined by society as a whole ― by its historical development and its organization. If a person sinks into debt because of overspending or credit card abuse, other people often consider the problem to be the result of the individual’s personal failings. However, thinking about it this way overlooks debt among people in low­income brackets who have no other way than debt to acquire basic necessities of life. By contrast, at middle­ and upper­income levels, overspending takes on a variety of meanings typically influenced by what people think of as essential for their well­being and associated with the so­called “good life” that is so heavily marketed. But across income and wealth levels, larger­scale economic and social problems may affect the person’s ability to pay for consumer goods and services.

① To live on debt is the result of personal failure.

② Problems created by individuals cause social problems.

③ You should look back on yourself when a problem arises.

④ Overall economic and social problems affect a person's ability to pay.

⑤ Debts among people in low-income have a variety of meanings according to the consumption of upper­income people.

(8)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type A

19.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

19)

[201809H1_39문장삽입_변형]

Traditionally, people were declared dead when their hearts stopped beating, their blood stopped circulating and they stopped breathing. So doctors would listen for a heartbeat, or occasionally conduct the famous mirror test to see if there were any signs of moisture from the potential deceased’s breath. It is commonly known that when people’s hearts stop and they breathe their last, they are dead. But in the last half­century, doctors have proved time and time again that they can revive many patients whose hearts have stopped beating by various techniques such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation. So a patient whose heart has stopped can no longer be regarded as dead.

Instead, the patient is said to be ‘clinically dead’.

Someone who is only clinically dead can often be brought back to life.

* cardiopulmonary resuscitation: 심폐소생술(CPR)

① A Heart Stopped Beating: A New Disease

② A Controversial Topic: Is He Dead or Not?

③ The Reason Doctors Listen to a Heartbeat Carefully

④ The New Definition of the Dead and the Clinically Dead

⑤ What Did Advanced Medical Science Bring to Modern Society

20.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

20)

[201809H1_40요약문_변형]

At the Leipzig Zoo in Germany, 34 zoo chimpanzees and orangutans participating in a study were each individually tested in a room, where they were put in front of two boxes. An experimenter would place an object inside one box and leave the room. Another experimenter would enter the room, move the object into the other box and exit. When the first experimenter returned and tried retrieving the object from the first box, the great ape would help the experimenter open the second box, which it knew the object had been transferred to. However, most apes in the study did not help the first experimenter open the second box if the first experimenter was still in the room to see the second experimenter move the item.

The findings show the great apes understood when the first experimenter still thought the item was where he or she last left it.

① What Can Primates Absorb in Examining Humans?

② The Role of Experimenters' Belief in Social Animals

③ An Old Controversy: Are Humans and Primates Friends?

④ Great Apes: Primates Grasp Humans’ Bad Perception of Reality

⑤ How Similar Are Humans to Chimpanzees and Orangutans?

21.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것 은?

21)

[201809H1_18목적추론_변형]

Dear Mr. Stevens,

This is a reply to your inquiry about the shipment status of the desk you ① purchased at our store on September 26. Unfortunately, the delivery of your desk will take longer than expected due to the damage that ② occurred during the shipment from the furniture manufacturer to our warehouse. We ③ have ordered an exact replacement from the manufacturer, and we expect that delivery will take place within two weeks. As soon as the desk ④ will arrive, we will telephone you immediately and arrange a convenient delivery time. We regret the inconvenience this delay

⑤ has caused you.

Sincerely, Justin Upton

(9)

22.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현 으로 가장 적절한 것은?

22)

[201809H1_19심경추론_변형]

Garnet blew out the candles and lay down. It was too hot even for a sheet. She lay there, wet with perspiration, (A) [listening / listened] to the empty thunder that brought no rain. She whispered, “I wish the drought would end.” Late in the night, Garnet had a strange feeling that something she had been waiting for was about to happen. She lay quite still, listening.

The thunder rumbled again, sounding (B)[much / too]

louder. And then slowly, one by one, as if someone were dropping pennies on the roof, came the raindrops. Garnet held her breath hopefully. The sound paused. "Don't stop! Please!" she whispered. Then the rain burst strong and loud upon the world. Garnet leaped out of bed and ran to the window. She shouted with joy, "It's raining hard!" She felt (C) [even though / as though] the thunderstorm were a present.

(A) (B) (C)

① listening much as though

② listened too even though

③ listening too as though

④ listened much as though

⑤ listening much even though

23.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현 으로 가장 적절한 것은?

23)

[201809H1_20주장추론_변형]

How do you encourage other people when they are changing their behavior? Suppose you see a friend who is on a diet and has been losing a lot of weight.

It’s (A) [tempting / tempted] to tell her that she looks great and she must feel wonderful. It feels good for someone to hear positive comments, and this feedback will often be (B) [encouraging / encouraged]. However, if you end the discussion there, then the only feedback your friend is getting is about her progress toward an outcome. Instead, continue the discussion.

Ask about what she is doing that has allowed her (C) [being / to be] successful. What is she eating?

Where is she working out? What are the lifestyle changes she has made? When the conversation focuses on the process of change rather than the outcome, it reinforces the value of creating a sustainable process.

(A) (B) (C)

① tempting encouraging being

② tempted encouraging being

③ tempting encouraging to be

④ tempted encouraged to be

⑤ tempted encouraged to be

24.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임 이 적절하지 않은 것은?

24)

[201809H1_21요지추론_변형]

It might seem that praising your child’s intelligence or talent would ① boost his self­esteem and motivate

him. But it turns out that this sort of praise

② backfires. Carol Dweck and her colleagues have demonstrated the effect in a series of experimental studies: “When we praise kids for their ability, kids become more cautious. They ③ accept challenges.” It’s as if they are afraid to do anything that might make them fail and lose your high ④ appraisal. Kids might also get the message that intelligence or talent is something that people either have or don’t have. This leaves kids feeling ⑤ helpless when they make mistakes. What’s the point of trying to improve if your mistakes indicate that you lack intelligence?

25.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임 이 적절하지 않은 것은?

25)

[201809H1_22주제추론_변형]

Fast fashion refers to trendy clothes designed, created, and sold to consumers as quickly as possible at extremely ① low prices. Fast fashion items may not cost you ② little at the cash register, but they come with a serious price: tens of millions of people in developing countries, some just children, work long hours in ③ dangerous conditions to make them, in the kinds of factories often labeled sweatshops. Most garment workers are paid barely ④ enough to survive.

Fast fashion also hurts the environment. Garments are manufactured using ⑤ toxic chemicals and then transported around the globe, making the fashion industry the world’s second­largest polluter, after the oil industry. And millions of tons of discarded clothing piles up in landfills each year.

* sweatshop: 노동착취공장

(10)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type A

26.

다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

26)

[201809H1_23제목추론_변형]

If you want to protect yourself from colds and flu, regular exercise may be the ultimate immunity­booster.

Studies have shown that moderate aerobic exercise can more than halve your risk for respiratory infections and other common winter diseases. But when you feel sick, the story changes. “Exercise is great for prevention, but it can be lousy for therapy,” says David Nieman, the director of the Human Performance Lab. Research shows that moderate exercise has no effect on the duration or severity of the common cold.

If you have the flu or other forms of fever­causing systemic infections, exercise can slow recovery and, therefore, is a bad idea. Your immune system is working overtime to fight off the infection, and exercise, a form of physical stress, makes that task harder.

* respiratory: 호흡기의

** lousy: 나쁜

① Exercising regularly is likely to make your immune system weaken.

② Exercise is not the best solution for you to get better when you are ill.

③ Physical stress you’ve got cannot be relieved by exercising with friends.

④ There is nothing better than exercising when fighting against your illness.

⑤ For your good condition good nutrition is more important than a vaccination.

27.

Eddie Adams에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하 지 않는 것은?

27)

[201809H1_25내용일치_변형]

Eddie Adams was born in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. He developed his passion for photography in his teens, when he became a staff photographer for his high school paper. After graduating, he joined the United States Marine Corps, where he captured scenes from the Korean War as a combat photographer. In 1958, he became staff at the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, a daily evening newspaper published in Philadelphia. In 1962, he

joined the Associated Press (AP), and after 10 years, he left the AP to work as a freelancer for Time magazine. The Saigon Execution photo that he took in Vietnam earned him the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography in 1969. He shot more than 350 covers of magazines with portraits of political leaders such as Deng Xiaoping, Richard Nixon, and George Bush.

① 고등학교 때 신문기자였다.

② 학교를 졸업하고, 종군 사진 기자가 되었다.

③ 필라델피아에서 발간된 조간신문의 직원이었다.

④ 프리랜서로 일하기 위해 연합통신사를 떠났다.

⑤ Saigon Execution 사진으로 퓰리처상을 받았다.

28.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

28)

[201809H1_28어법추론_변형]

My dad worked very late hours as a musician ― until about three in the morning ― so he slept late on weekends. As a result, we didn’t have much of a relationship when I was young other than him constantly nagging me to take care of chores like mowing the lawn and cutting the hedges, which I hated. He was a responsible man dealing with an irresponsible kid. Memories of how we interacted seem funny to me today. For example, one time he told me to cut the grass and I decided to do just the front yard and postpone doing the back, but then it rained for a couple days and the backyard grass became so high I had to cut it with a sickle. That took so long that by the time I was finished, the front yard was too high to mow, and so on.

* sickle: 낫

① Like Father Like Son

② What Reminds of My Dad

③ How My Dad Assigned Chores

④ Memories of Being Scolded by My Dad

⑤ The Way I Used to Interact with My Dad

(11)

29.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

29)

[201809H1_29어휘추론_변형]

People are innately inclined to look for causes of events, to form explanations and stories. That is one reason storytelling is such a persuasive medium.

Stories resonate with our experiences and provide examples of new instances. From our experiences and the stories of others we tend to form generalizations about the way people behave and things work. We attribute causes to events, and as long as these cause­and­effect pairings make sense, we use them for understanding future events. Yet these causal attributions are often mistaken. Sometimes they implicate the wrong causes, and for some things that happen, there is no single cause. Rather, there is a complex chain of events that all contribute to the result; if any one of the events would not have occurred, the result would be different. But even when there is no single causal act, that doesn’t stop people from assigning one.

* resonate: 떠올리게 하다 ** implicate: 연관시키다

① The Impact of Stories on Us

② Why Should We Read the Story?

③ Why Is Storytelling so Convincing?

④ The Importance of the Ability to Make a Story

⑤ The Nature of Man who Wants to Make a Story

30.

다음 글에 드러난 필자의 심경 변화로 가장 적절 한 것은?

30)

[201809H1_30지칭추론_변형]

Leaving a store, I returned to my car only to find that I’d locked my car key and cell phone inside the vehicle. A teenager riding his bike saw me kick a tire in frustration. “What’s wrong?” he asked. I explained my situation. “But even if I could call my husband,” I said, “he can’t bring me his car key, since this is our only car.” He handed me his cell phone. The thoughtful boy said, “Call your husband and tell him I’m coming to get his key.” “Are you sure? That’s four miles round trip.” “Don’t worry about it.” An hour later, he returned with the key. I offered him some money, but he refused. “Let’s just say I needed the exercise,” he said. Then, like a cowboy in the movies, he rode off into the sunset.

① confused → exciting

② resentful → satisfied

③ monotonous → grateful

④ depressed → relieved

⑤ indifferent → joyful

31.

다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

31)

[201809H1_31빈칸추론_변형]

One CEO in one of Silicon Valley’s most innovative companies has what would seem like a boring, creativity­killing routine. He holds a three­hour meeting that starts at 9:00 A.M. one day a week. It is never missed or rescheduled at a different time. It is mandatory ― so much so that even in this global firm all the executives know never to schedule any travel that will conflict with the meeting. At first glance there is nothing particularly unique about this. But what is unique is the quality of ideas that come out of the regular meetings. Because the CEO has eliminated the mental cost involved in planning the meeting or thinking about who will or won’t be there, people can focus on creative problem solving.

① Qualifications of CEO

② History of Silicon Valley

③ How to Think Creatively

④ The Importance of Regular Meetings

⑤ Advantages and Disadvantages of the meeting

32.

다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

32)

[201809H1_32빈칸추론_변형]

When meeting someone in person, body language experts say that smiling can portray confidence and warmth. Online, however, smiley faces could be doing some serious damage to your career. In a new study, researchers found that using smiley faces makes you look incompetent. The study says, “contrary to actual smiles, smileys do not increase perceptions of warmth and actually decrease perceptions of competence.” The report also explains, “Perceptions of low competence, in turn, lessened information sharing.” Chances are, if you are including a smiley face in an email for work, the last thing you want is for your co­workers to think that you are so inadequate that they chose not to share information with you.

① 미소를 짓는 것은 사람들에게 긍정적인 영향을 준다.

② 웃음 이모티콘은 사람들에게 무능력하게 보일 수 있 다.

③ 자신감을 높이는 것과 웃음 이모티콘은 상반관계에 있 다.

④ 정보 공유를 증가시키려면 웃음 이모티콘을 적절히 사 용하는 것이 중요하다.

⑤ 온라인에서 웃는 얼굴은 자신의 감정을 숨기는 게 용 이하다.

(12)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type A

33.

다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

33)

[201809H1_33빈칸추론_변형]

How funny are you? While some people are natural humorists, being funny is a set of skills that can be learned. Exceptionally funny people don’t depend upon their memory to keep track of everything they find funny. In the olden days, great comedians carried notebooks to write down funny thoughts or observations and scrapbooks for news clippings that struck them as funny. Today, you can do that easily with your smartphone. If you have a funny thought, record it as an audio note. If you read a funny article, save the link in your bookmarks. The world is a funny place and your existence within it is probably funnier.

Accepting that fact is a blessing that gives you everything you need to see humor and craft stories on a daily basis. All you have to do is document them and then tell someone.

① 재미있는 점을 발견하는 것은 일상의 축복 중 하나이 다.

② 오늘날 스마트폰으로 쉽게 재미있는 것들을 찾을 수 있다.

③ 위대한 사람들은 재미있는 것을 잊지 않게 위해서 애 쓴다.

④ 당신에게 재미있는 생각이 있다면 음성기록으로 그것 을 녹음해야 한다.

⑤ 재미있는 사람이 되려면 재미있는 것들을 기억에 의존 하지 않고, 기록해야 한다.

34.

다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

34)

[201809H1_34빈칸추론_변형]

If you ask a physicist how long it would take a marble to fall from the top of a ten­story building, he will likely answer the question by assuming that the marble falls in a vacuum. In reality, the building is surrounded by air, which applies friction to the falling marble and slows it down. Yet the physicist will point out that the friction on the marble is so small that its effect is negligible. Assuming the marble falls in a vacuum simplifies the problem without substantially affecting the answer. Economists make assumptions for the same reason: Assumptions can simplify the complex world and make it easier to understand. To study the effects of international trade, for example, we might assume that the world consists of only two countries and that each country produces only two

goods. By doing so, we can focus our thinking on the essence of the problem. Thus, we are in a better position to understand international trade in the complex world.

* negligible: 무시할 수 있는

① Assumptions distort the truth.

② Assumptions : the enemy of studies

③ The effect of assumptions is negligible.

④ Assumptions make the complicated problems simple

⑤ Physicists and economists research the complex problems.

35.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것 은?

35)

[201809H1_35무관한문장_변형]

Water is the ultimate commons. Once, watercourses seemed boundless and the idea of protecting water was ① considered silly. But rules change. Time and again, communities have studied water systems and

② redefined wise use. Now Ecuador has become the first nation on Earth to put the rights of nature in its constitution. This move has proclaimed ③ that rivers and forests are not simply property but maintain their own right to flourish. According to the constitution, a citizen might file suit on behalf of an injured watershed, ④ recognize that its health is crucial to the common good. More countries are acknowledging nature’s rights and are ⑤ expected to follow Ecuador’s lead.

* commons: 공유 자원

** watershed: (강) 유역

(13)

36.

다음 글의 주제 가장 적절한 것은?

36)

[201809H1_36순서추론_변형]

No one likes to think they’re average, least of all below average. When asked by psychologists, most people rate themselves above average on all manner of measures including intelligence, looks, health, and so on. Self­control is no different: people consistently overestimate their ability to control themselves. This over­confidence in self­control can lead people to assume they’ll be able to control themselves in situations in which, it turns out, they can’t. This is why trying to stop an unwanted habit can be an extremely frustrating task. Over the days and weeks from our resolution to change, we start to notice it popping up again and again. The old habit’s well­practiced performance is beating our conscious desire for change into submission.

① how to improve self-esteem constantly

② the importance of determination to change

③ the necessity of stopping an unwanted habit

④ warning against over­confidence in self­control

⑤ effect of psychologists on all manner of measures

37.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것 은?

37)

[201809H1_37순서추론_변형]

Trade will not occur unless both parties want ① what the other party has to offer. This ② is referred to as the double coincidence of wants. Suppose a farmer wants to trade eggs with a baker for a loaf of bread.

If the baker has no need or desire for eggs, then the farmer is out of luck and does not get ③ any bread.

However, if the farmer is enterprising and utilizes his network of village friends, he might discover ④ if the baker is in need of some new cast­iron trivets for cooling his bread, and it just so happens that the blacksmith needs a new lamb’s wool sweater. Upon further investigation, the farmer discovers that the weaver ⑤ has been wanting an omelet for the past week. The farmer will then trade the eggs for the sweater, the sweater for the trivets, and the trivets for his fresh­baked loaf of bread.

* trivet 삼각 거치대

38.

다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다.

빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?

38)

[201809H1_38문장삽입_변형]

Have you heard someone say, “He has no one to blame but himself” for some problem? In everyday life we often blame people for “creating” their own problems. Although individual behavior can contribute to social problems, our individual experiences are often largely beyond our own control. They are determined by society as a whole ― by its historical development and its organization. If a person sinks into debt because of overspending or credit card abuse, other people often consider the problem to be the result of the individual’s personal failings. However, thinking about it this way overlooks debt among people in low­income brackets who have no other way than debt to acquire basic necessities of life. By contrast, at middle­ and upper­income levels, overspending takes on a variety of meanings typically influenced by what people think of as essential for their well­being and associated with the so­called “good life” that is so heavily marketed. But across income and wealth levels, larger­scale economic and social problems may affect the person’s ability to pay for consumer goods and services.

You may think the problem of an individual's (A)ban is the result of his personal failure, but the

overall social structure may affect it because individual experience goes beyond (B)ban.

(A) (B)

① behavior control

② behavior income

③ solvency income

④ solvency control

⑤ debt income

(14)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type A

39.

다음 글의 요지로 알맞은 것은?

39)

[201809H1_39문장삽입_변형]

Traditionally, people were declared dead when their hearts stopped beating, their blood stopped circulating and they stopped breathing. So doctors would listen for a heartbeat, or occasionally conduct the famous mirror test to see if there were any signs of moisture from the potential deceased’s breath. It is commonly known that when people’s hearts stop and they breathe their last, they are dead. But in the last half­century, doctors have proved time and time again that they can revive many patients whose hearts have stopped beating by various techniques such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Instead, the patient is said to be ‘clinically dead’. So a patient whose heart has stopped can no longer be regarded as dead.

Someone who is only clinically dead can often be brought back to life.

* cardiopulmonary resuscitation: 심폐소생술(CPR)

① 사람을 살리는 데는 심폐소생술이 많이 쓰인다.

② 사람이 사망한 것을 확인하는 데는 여러 가지 방법이 사용된다.

③ 사람이 호흡이 멈추었다고 꼭 죽은 것은 아니다.

④ 현대의 의사들은 숨이 멈춘 환자들을 여러 가지 방법 으로 살리고 있다.

⑤ 일반적으로 사람이 심장박동이 멈추었을 때 사망이라 고 했다.

40.

다음의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

40)

[201809H1_40 요약문추론_변형]

At the Leipzig Zoo in Germany, 34 zoo chimpanzees and orangutans participating in a study were each individually tested in a room, where they were put in front of two boxes. An experimenter would place an object inside one box and leave the room. Another experimenter would enter the room, move the object into the other box and exit. When the first experimenter returned and tried retrieving the object from the first box, the great ape would help the experimenter open the second box, which it knew the object had been transferred to. However, most apes in the study did not help the first experimenter open the second box if the first experimenter was still in the room to see the second experimenter move the item.

The findings show the great apes understood when the first experimenter still thought the item was where he or she last left it.

① The great apes tried to help someone else.

② The apes understood how people could deceive them.

③ The great apes didn’t have any intention to help people.

④ The great apes could simply transfer an object to another place.

⑤ The great apes could perceive whether people perform a task inaccurately.

(15)

41.

다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

41)

[201809H1_18목적추론_변형]

Dear Mr. Stevens,

This is a reply to your inquiry about the shipment status of the desk you purchased at our store on September 26. ① Unfortunately, the delivery of your desk will take longer than expected due to the damage that occurred during the shipment from the furniture manufacturer to our warehouse. ② We have ordered an exact replacement from the manufacturer, and we expect that delivery will take place within two weeks. ③ If you want, then, I can give you the contact information of another furniture manufacturer.

④ As soon as the desk arrives, we will telephone you immediately and arrange a convenient delivery time.

⑤ We regret the inconvenience this delay has caused you.

Sincerely, Justin Upton

42.

주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절 한 것을 고르시오.

42)

[201809H1_19심경추론_변형]

Garnet blew out the candles and lay down. It was too hot even for a sheet. She lay there, sweating, listening to the empty thunder that brought no rain, and whispered, “I wish the drought would end.”

(A) Then the rain burst strong and loud upon the world. Garnet leaped out of bed and ran to the window. She shouted with joy, “It’s raining hard!”

She felt as though the thunderstorm was a present.

(B) And then slowly, one by one, as if someone were dropping pennies on the roof, came the raindrops.

Garnet held her breath hopefully. The sound paused. “Don’t stop! Please!” she whispered.

(C) Late in the night, Garnet had a feeling that something she had been waiting for was about to happen. She lay quite still, listening. The thunder rumbled again, sounding much louder.

① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C)

③ (B) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (A) - (B)

⑤ (C) - (B) - (A)

43.

주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절 한 것을 고르시오.

43)

[201809H1_20주장추론_변형]

How do you encourage other people when they are changing their behavior? Suppose you see a friend who is on a diet and has been losing a lot of weight.

(A) When the conversation focuses on the process of change rather than the outcome, it reinforces the value of creating a sustainable process.

(B) However, if you end the discussion there, then the only feedback your friend is getting is about her progress toward an outcome. Instead, continue the discussion. Ask about what she is doing that has allowed her to be successful. What is she eating?

Where is she working out? What are the lifestyle changes she has made?

(C) It’s tempting to tell her that she looks great and she must feel wonderful. It feels good for someone to hear positive comments, and this feedback will often be encouraging.

① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C)

③ (B) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (A) - (B)

⑤ (C) - (B) - (A)

44.

글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

44)

[201809H1_21요지추론_변형]

Kids might also get the message that intelligence or talent is something that people either have or don’t have.

It might seem that praising your child’s intelligence or talent would boost his self­esteem and motivate him. ( ① ) But it turns out that this sort of praise backfires. ( ② ) Carol Dweck and her colleagues have demonstrated the effect in a series of experimental studies: “When we praise kids for their ability, kids become more cautious. They avoid challenges.” ( ③ ) It’s as if they are afraid to do anything that might make them fail and lose your high appraisal. ( ④ ) This leaves kids feeling helpless when they make mistakes. ( ⑤ ) What’s the point of trying to improve if your mistakes indicate that you lack intelligence?

(16)

2018년 9월 모의고사 <고1> Type B

45.

글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

45)

[201809H1_22주제추론_변형]

Fast fashion also hurts the environment.

Fast fashion refers to trendy clothes designed, created, and sold to consumers as quickly as possible at extremely low prices. ( ① ) Fast fashion items may not cost you much at the cash register, but they come with a serious price: tens of millions of people in developing countries, some just children, work long hours in dangerous conditions to make them, in the kinds of factories often labeled sweatshops. ( ② ) Most garment workers are paid barely enough to survive. ( ③ ) Garments are manufactured using toxic chemicals and then transported around the globe, making the fashion industry the world’s second­largest polluter, after the oil industry. ( ④ ) And millions of tons of discarded clothing piles up in landfills each year. ( ⑤ )

* sweatshop: 노동착취공장

46.

글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

46)

[201809H1_23제목추론_변형]

But when you feel sick, the story changes.

If you want to protect yourself from colds and flu, regular exercise may be the ultimate immunity­booster.

( ① ) Studies have shown that moderate aerobic exercise can more than halve your risk for respiratory infections and other common winter diseases. ( ② )

“Exercise is great for prevention, but it can be lousy for therapy,” says David Nieman, the director of the Human Performance Lab. ( ③ ) Research shows that moderate exercise has no effect on the duration or severity of the common cold. ( ④ ) If you have the flu or other forms of fever­causing systemic infections, exercise can slow recovery and, therefore, is a bad idea. ( ⑤ ) Your immune system is working overtime to fight off the infection, and exercise, a form of physical stress, makes that task harder.

* respiratory: 호흡기의 ** lousy: 나쁜

47.

글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

47)

[201809H1_25내용일치_변형]

The Saigon Execution photo that he took in Vietnam earned him the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography in 1969.

Eddie Adams was born in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. ( ① ) He developed his passion for photography in his teens, when he became a staff photographer for his high school paper. ( ② ) After graduating, he joined the United States Marine Corps, where he captured scenes from the Korean War as a combat photographer. ( ③ ) In 1958, he became staff at the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, a daily evening newspaper published in Philadelphia. ( ④ ) In 1962, he joined the Associated Press (AP), and after 10 years, he left the AP to work as a freelancer for Time magazine. ( ⑤ ) He shot more than 350 covers of magazines with portraits of political leaders such as Deng Xiaoping, Richard Nixon, and George Bush.

48.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말 로 가장 적절한 것은?

48)

[201809H1_28어법추론_변형]

My dad worked very late hours as a musician ― until about three in the morning ― so he slept late on weekends. As a result, we didn’t have much of a relationship when I was young other than him constantly nagging me to take care of chores like mowing the lawn and cutting the hedges, which I (A) [hated / loved]. He was a responsible man dealing with an irresponsible kid. Memories of how we interacted seem (B) [funny / boring] to me today. For example, one time he told me to cut the grass and I decided to do just the front yard and postpone doing the back, but then it rained for a couple days and the backyard grass became so high I had to cut it with a sickle. That took so long that by the time I was finished, the front yard was too (C) [high / low] to mow, and so on.

* sickle: 낫

(A) (B) (C)

① loved funny high

② loved boring low

③ hated funny high

④ hated boring low

⑤ hated funny low

Figure

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References

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