Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient

전체 글

(1)

Received: May 13, 2013 Revised: August 16, 2013 Accepted: August 16, 2013 Corresponding Author : Yoon Soo Park, MD, PhD

Department of Internal Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, 21 Namdongdae-ro 774 beon-gil, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760, Korea Tel: +82-32-460-8506, Fax: +82-32-469-4320

E-mail: yspark@gilhospital.com

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and repro- duction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyrights © 2014 by The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases | Korean Society for Chemotherapy

www.icjournal.org

Suyoung Kim , Kang Lock Lee , Dong Min Lee , Ji Hun Jeong , Song Mi Moon , Yiel-Hae Seo , Chan Jong Yoo

3

, Dongki Yang

4

, Yong Kyun Cho

1

, and Yoon Soo Park

1

Departments of 1Internal Medicine, 2Laboratory Medicine, 3Neurosurgery, and 4Physiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea

Nocardia cerebral abscess is rare, constituting approximately 1-2% of all cerebral abscesses. Mortality for a cerebral abscess of Nocardia is three times higher than that of other bacterial cerebral abscesses, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is impor- tant. Nocardia cerebral abscess is generally occur among immunocompromised patients, and critical infection in immunocom- petent patients is extremely rare. We report on a case of a brain abscess by Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient who received treatment with surgery and antibiotics. This is the second case of a brain abscess caused by N. farcinica in an im- munocompetent patient in Korea.

Key Words: Nocardia infections; Brain abscess; Immunocompetence

Introduction

Nocardia species are gram-positive, aerobic, branching fila- mentous bacteria belonging to Actinomycetales. Nocardia as- teroides and Nocardia farcinica are the most frequent patho- gen. Although infection commonly occurs through inhalation or direct cutaneous inoculation, Nocardia species can spread to the central nervous system hematogenously, usually in im- munocompromised patients [1, 2]. Nocardia brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient has rarely been reported [3]. In Korea, only one case of Nocardia brain abscess in an immu- nocompetent host has been reported [4]. We report an immu-

nocompetent patient who had a Nocardia brain abscess, which was treated by stereotactic aspiration of the abscess and systemic antibiotics. This is the second case of a brain ab- scess caused by N. farcinica in an immunocompetent patient in Korea.

Case Report

A 71-year-old male was admitted due to headache, dizzi- ness, and nausea for three days. He was healthy, except that he had been diagnosed with hypertension two years before.

(2)

His past medical history was unremarkable. His social history included intermittent alcohol consumption without smoking.

The initial vital signs revealed blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg, heart rate of 76 beats per minute, respiration rate of 18 breaths per minute and body temperature of 36.9oC. He was alert upon admission. Physical examination revealed clear lung sound without rale or wheezing. The heart beat was regu- lar without any murmur. There was no tenderness or rebound tenderness in the abdomen. Findings from other physical and neurological examinations were normal. There were no other symptoms such as fever, neck stiffness, photophobia, papill- edema or other abnormalities. The initial peripheral blood count showed a white blood cell count of 11,200/mm3 (neu- trophils 64.6%, lymphocytes 24.5%, monocytes 6.8%), hemo- globin level of 13.0 g/dL, platelet count of 211,000/mm3, eryth- rocyte sedimentation rate of 38 mm/hr, and C-reactive protein level of 1.11 mg/dL. Blood chemistry showed a total protein level of 7.6 g/dL, albumin level of 4.3 g/dL, total bilirubin level of 0.9 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine amino- transferase 27/16 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 77 IU/L, BUN/

Cr 9.2/0.8 mg/dL, Na/K 136/3.8 mEq/L, and Ca/P 9.0/4.7 mg/

dL. Result of urinalysis was normal. Human immunodeficien- cy virus (HIV) antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepa- titis C antibody were all negative. Chest and abdomen radio- graphs were normal. Brain CT scan and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed multiple rim enhancing lesions with surrounding edema, which was presumed to be a brain ab-

scess (Fig. 1).

After admission, the patient underwent a craniotomy with stereotactic aspiration of the abscess. During the operation, yellowish and turbid pus was aspirated and a cerebral abscess was diagnosed. Empirical parenteral antibiotics were started with ceftriaxone 2 g bid and metronidazole 500 mg tid. Gram stain of the pus showed beaded branching gram-positive ba- cilli. Urease test, esculin hydrolysis test, citrate test, and modi- fied acid-fast stain using 1% acid alcohol were all positive and the bacteria grew at 42oC. Nocardia species were suggested by colonial morphology, Gram-stain, and modified acid fast ba- cillus (AFB) stain (Fig. 2). By manual, culture was identified as Nocardia species. For the accurate identification of Nocardia species, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing was carried out. Prim- ers of 27F (5’-AGA GTT TGA TCM TGG CTC AG-3’) and 1492R (5’-TAC GGY TAC CTT GTT ACG ACT T-3’) were used for 16S rRNA gene amplification. Size of 1466 bp 16S rRNA gene amplification sequencing was carried out by Solgent (Sol- gent Co, Daejeon, Korea) company which uses Big Dye Termi- nator Cycle Sequencing Kit and ABI PRISM 3730 DNA analyzer (PE Applied Biosystem, Foster, CA, USA). It showed 100% con- cordance to N. farcinica (GenBank accession number:

KC478309) by BLAST Similarity Searching in GenBank. The organism was susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, trime- thoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), ciprofloxacin, and re- sistant to erythromycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, gentamicin.

Figure 1. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain. (A) T1-WI shows rim-enhancing lesion with associated edema in the right occipital lobe. (B) The dark signal on T2- WI and consistent thickness of the wall suggest a brain abscess.

A B

(3)

After identifying the result of pus culture, the antibiotic regi- men was changed to TMP-SMX (15 mg/kg of the TMP compo- nent per day) and imipenem 500 mg qid. Due to the persis- tence of the patient’s symptoms, re-imaging was performed two weeks later. On day 24 of admission, the patient under- went a repeated craniotomy with stereotactic aspiration of the abscess because the abscess and surrounding edema have in- creased than before. Ciprofloxacin (400 mg every 12 h, intra- venous) was added to the TMP-SMX treatment and changed from imipenem to meropenem. After performance of repeat- ed surgery and administration of additional antibiotics, we observed improvement of the patient’s symptoms. Contrast- enhanced brain CT scan performed three weeks after reoper- ation, showed substantial resolution of the brain lesion. Me- ropenem and ciprofloxacin were continued for six weeks. On hospital day 67, he was discharged to go home to complete four months of oral TMP-SMX therapy. On three-month fol- low-up brain CT after discharge, resolution of the brain ab- scess was confirmed.

Discussion

Nocardia species are branching filaments of gram-positive bacteria that are omnipresent in soil and water [5]. Sixteen species of Nocardia have been implicated in human infec- tions [6]. Nocardia infections commonly arise in the immuno- compromised states including organ transplants, leukemia, HIV, steroid abuse, and autoimmune disease [1]. Inhalation is the most common route of the infection. Isolated pulmonary infection is most common, followed by disseminated disease (13.5%). Isolated involvement of the skin (8.1%) and central nerve system (5.4%) has also been reported [7].

Nocardia species are a rare cause of cerebral abscess [3].

Nocardia brain abscess appears in a gradually progressive mass lesion, with specific neurologic findings. Seizures and focal neurological deficits are the most common clinical man- ifestations observed in patients with a Nocardia brain abscess [8]. Our patient was rarely represented with neurologic and toxic symptoms such as seizure, paralysis, dyspnea and fever.

Most patients with a Nocardia brain abscess are immuno- compromised or have received immunosuppressive therapy [3]. Nocardia brain abscess in an immunocompetent host overseas has rarely been reported, and only one case of No- cardia brain abscess, which accompanied semi-invasive pul- monary Aspergillosis, has been reported in Korea. In this case, the patient was not immunocompromised and had not re- ceived immunosuppressive therapy [4, 9-11].

The mortality rate for Nocardia brain abscess is higher than that for other bacterial cerebral abscesses. In general, the mor- tality rate for patients with Nocardia infection is three times higher than that for patients with other types of bacterial brain abscess. The higher mortality of Nocardia brain abscess is supposed to be associated with patient’s immune state. Ac- cording to one study, the mortality rate of immunocompro- mised patients was 55%, whereas the mortality rate of immu- nocompetent patients was 20% [8, 11].

It is difficult to diagnose the Nocardia infection using cul- ture-based methods because Nocardia species grow slowly and are contaminated by faster growing competitors. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing method is a reliable and fast method for identification of Nocardia species [12]. In this case, colo- nial morphology, Gram stain, and modified AFB stain sug- gested Nocardia species. The species was identified as N. far- cinica by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and sequencing.

For diagnosis of a Nocardia brain abscess, it is important to carry out the brain images and surgical interventions. Brain CT, demonstrating a hypodense, enhancing lesion with sur- Figure 2. (A) Yellowish, round colonies are found on a blood agar plate. (B) Gram-positive branched rods are observed (Gram stain, × 1000). (C) Modi- fied acid-fast stain of a pus specimen (× 1000), shows branching, filamentous organism compatible with Nocardia species (white arrows).

A B C

(4)

rounding edema, is sensitive for discovery and localization of the lesion; however, it is not sufficient for diagnosis. On brain MRI, multiple concentric rims are seen in abscesses due to Nocardia. Because it occasionally occur that necrotic metas- tasis and brain tumors are wrongly recognized by imaging study, it is required to get a proper specimen through surgical intervention. Besides, in order to prevent treatment delay, ear- ly surgical intervention is also required [13].

Although the use of metronidazole and third generation cephalosporins has become the standard for empirical treat- ment of cerebral abscesses, initial antimicrobial therapy for cerebral nocardiosis was established for the use of TMP-SMX, amikacin, and imipenem because Nocardia species are occa- sionally resistant to these antibiotics [14-16]. In particular, TMP-SMX is the preferred initial treatment for a Nocardia brain abscess due to good tolerance and better cerebrospinal fluid penetration [17]. Due to its similar pharmacokinetic ef- fect, good cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and its association with lower occurrence of seizure, meropenem is a theoretical- ly attractive substitute for imipenem for patients with cerebral nocardiosis [18]. Because a nocardial abscess forms multiloc- ular and thick walled lesions, surgical intervention is usually required in most cases of cerebral nocardiosis. Overall prog- nosis is favorable upon administration of appropriate surgical therapy and antibiotics [17, 19]. In this case, we performed re- operation and added ciprofloxacin to the TMP-SMX because the abscess and surrounding edema have increased than be- fore and the pathogen was susceptible to ciprofloxacin. As a result, the patient has improved after repeated surgical inter- vention and antibiotics.

In summary, Nocardia species are a rare cause of brain ab- scess in immunocompetent individuals. In Korea, this is the second report of an immunocompetent patient with a brain abscess caused by N. farcinica.

References

1. Beaman BL, Beaman L. Nocardia species: host-parasite relationships. Clin Microbiol Rev 1994;7:213-64.

2. Brown-Elliott BA, Brown JM, Conville PS, Wallace RJ Jr.

Clinical and laboratory features of the Nocardia spp.

based on current molecular taxonomy. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006;19:259-82.

3. Malincarne L, Marroni M, Farina C, Camanni G, Valente M, Belfiori B, Fiorucci S, Floridi P, Cardaccia A, Stagni G. Pri- mary brain abscess with Nocardia farcinica in an immuno-

competent patient. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2002;104:132-5.

4. Joung MK, Kong DS, Song JH, Peck KR. Concurrent nocar- dia related brain abscess and semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2011;49:305-7.

5. Lai CC, Lee LN, Teng LJ, Wu MS, Tsai JC, Hsueh PR. Dis- seminated Nocardia farcinica infection in a uraemia pa- tient with idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura receiving steroid therapy. J Med Microbiol 2005;54:1107-10.

6. Saubolle MA, Sussland D. Nocardiosis: review of clinical and laboratory experience. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:4497- 501.

7. Minero MV, Marín M, Cercenado E, Rabadán PM, Bouza E, Muñoz P. Nocardiosis at the turn of the century. Medicine (Baltimore) 2009;88:250-61.

8. Mamelak AN, Obana WG, Flaherty JF, Rosenblum ML.

Nocardial brain abscess: treatment strategies and factors influencing outcome. Neurosurgery 1994;35:622-31.

9. Oerlemans WG, Jansen EN, Prevo RL, Eijsvogel MM. Pri- mary cerebellar nocardiosis and alveolar proteinosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1998;97:138-41.

10. Mogilner A, Jallo GI, Zagzag D, Kelly PJ. Nocardia abscess of the choroid plexus: clinical and pathological case re- port. Neurosurgery 1998;43:949-52.

11. Fleetwood IG, Embil JM, Ross IB. Nocardia asteroides ce- rebral abscess in immunocompetent hosts: report of three cases and review of surgical recommendations. Surg Neu- rol 2000;53:605-10.

12. Tatti KM, Shieh WJ, Phillips S, Augenbraun M, Rao C, Zaki SR. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia farcinica from a cere- bral abscess. Hum Pathol 2006;37:1117-21.

13. Menkü A1, Kurtsoy A, Tucer B, Yildiz O, Akdemir H. No- cardia brain abscess mimicking brain tumour in immuno- competent patients: report of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2004;146:411-4; discus- sion 414.

14. Calfee DP, Wispelwey B. Brain abscess. Semin Neurol 2000;20:353-60.

15. Tourret J, Yeni P. Progress in the management of pyogenic cerebral abscesses in non-immunocompromised patients.

Ann Med Interne (Paris) 2003;154:515-21.

16. Hitti W, Wolff M. Two cases of multidrug-resistant Nocar- dia farcinica infection in immunosuppressed patients and implications for empiric therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol In- fect Dis 2005;24:142-4.

17. Valarezo J, Cohen JE, Valarezo L, Spektor S, Shoshan Y, Rosenthal G, Umansky F. Nocardial cerebral abscess: re-

(5)

수치

Updating...

참조

Updating...

관련 주제 :