(2) 연구 담당 국 승 용. 연 구 위 원. 김 태 이 권 승 구 송 동 흠. 위촉연구원 동국대학교 동국대학교. 제1장, 제8장, 제3장, 제2장, 제2장,. 제2장, 제3장, 제4장, 제5장, 제6장, 제7장, 제9장 집필 제4장 집필 제5장, 제7장 집필 제5장, 제7장 집필.
(3) i. 머 리 말. 최근 학교급식에 대한 사회적 관심이 확대되고 있다. 학교급식에서 가장 중 요한 것은 학생들에게 안전하고 높은 품질의 급식을 제공하는 것이다. 학교급 식에 친환경농산물과 친환경 식재료의 사용을 확대하고자 하는 시도 역시 학 교급식의 품질을 제고시키려는 노력의 일환이다. 친환경 식재료의 공급, 지역 산 식재료의 공급 등 학교급식 식재료 공급에 대한 사회적 관심 역시 확대되고 있다. 학교급식법에 의하면 학교급식 식재료 공급 체계의 개선을 위해 지방자치단 체의 장은 학교급식지원센터를 설립·운영할 수 있도록 하고 있다. 서울시와 경 기도는 광역 자치단체 차원에서 학교급식지원센터를 설립하여 안정적으로 친 환경농산물 공급하기 위해 노력하고 있다. 또한 시군 단위에서 학교급식지원센 터를 설립하려는 시도도 확대되고 있으며, 하나의 학교급식지원센터가 인접한 복수의 시군에 식재료를 공급하는 사례도 나타나고 있다. 이처럼 다양한 지역 에서 해당 지역의 특성에 맞는 학교급식지원센터를 설립·운영하는 시도가 확 산되고 있다. 안양·군포·의왕시는 서로 인접해 있으며, 3개시의 초중고등학생의 수가 16 만명에 육박하는 지역이다. 3개시가 개별적으로 학교급식지원센터를 설립하는 것보다 공동으로 설립·운영하는 것이 다양한 긍정적인 효과를 발생시킬 수 있 다는 인식 하에 이를 객관적으로 규명하기 위해 이 연구가 수행되었다. 이 연 구에서 안양·군포·의왕시의 학교급식과 농업 및 식품 산업 실태 조사, 영양교 사와 학부모의 인식 조사, 국내외 사례 조사, 비용-편익 분석 등을 실시하였으 며 이를 바탕으로 공동급식지원센터의 설립 타당성과 합리적 운영방안을 제시 하고 있다. 이 연구에 참여한 원내 연구진, 동국대 권승구 교수님과 연구진께 감사드린 다. 또한 이 연구를 위해 다양한 의견을 개진해 주신 자문위원, 영양교사, 시민.
(4) ii 사회단체 관계자, 시청과 도청, 도교육청과 교육지원청 관계자, 유관 기관 담당 자 등 연구에 도움을 주신 여러분께도 감사의 말씀을 드린다. 이 연구 결과가 안양·군포·의왕시 공동급식지원센터 설립과 효율적인 운영을 통해 학교급식을 발전시킬 수 있는 자료로 유용하게 활용되기를 기대한다. 2012. 5. 한국농촌경제연구원장 이 동 필.
(5) iii. 요. 약. 학교급식지원센터와 관련된 다양한 논의가 진행되고 있으나 그 운영 경험이 충분하지 못하여 시행착오가 발생하고 있다. 친환경농산물 이외의 다양한 학교 급식 식재료의 공급 등 학교급식지원센터의 기능과 위상에 대한 다각적인 논 의가 이루어지고 있으나 안정된 사업모델에 대한 충분한 검증이 이루어지지 못하고 있다. 안양·군포·의왕시는 상호 지리적으로 근거리에 인접한 동일한 생 활권에 있어 학교급식지원센터를 각각 설치·운영하는 것보다 소프트웨어 중심 의 공동 설치를 통해 경제적 효율을 극대화함으로써 궁극적으로 학생들에게 안전하고 영양가 높은 우수한 식재료를 공급하여야 할 필요성이 대두되고 있 다. 공동급식지원센터 설립 타당성을 검토하고 효율적이고 지속가능한 운영모 델의 개발이 요구된다. 학교 현황, 농업 현황, 식품제조업 현황 등은 안양·군포·의왕 시청이 보유하 고 있는 행정 통계를 활용하여 파악하였다. 학교급식에 사용되는 식재료 사용 실태 분석을 위해서 개별 학교의 2010학년도 월별, 품목별 식재료 사용 현황 자료를 분석하였다. 영양교사, 교육청 급식 행정 관계자, 공급업체 경영자 등에 대한 심층 면접을 실시하여 관련 실태와 문제점을 파악하였다. 문헌을 활용하 여 일본 학교급식 식재료 공급체계를 분석하였다. 서울친환경센터, 경기친환경 조합공동사업법인, 충북 청원, 충남 당진, 전남 나주, 전남 순천, 울산 북구, 서 울 성북구, 농협중앙회 등의 학교급식지원센터 담당자 면접조사를 실시하였다. 편익-비용 분석을 통해 공동급식지원센터의 설립 타당성을 분석하였다. 안양·군포·의왕시에는 153개 초중고등학교가 개설되어 있으며, 학생수는 15.7만명에 이른다. 학교급식에 소요된 식재료의 부류별 중량 구성비는 가공식 품 48.7%, 청과물 23.2%, 곡물 15.1%, 축산물 8.8%, 수산물 4.2%이다. 안양·군 포·의왕지역 초중고등학교에 1년간 공급되는 식재료는 15,894톤 규모이며 곡 물 2,505톤, 청과물 3,750톤, 축산물 1,501톤, 수산물 679톤, 가공식품 7,450톤.
(6) iv 규모에 이를 것으로 추산된다. 안양·군포·의왕지역 초중고등학교에 1년간 공급 되는 식재료 공급액은 591억원 규모이며 곡물 61억원, 청과물 143억원, 축산물 124억원, 수산물 59억원, 가공식품 205억원 규모에 이를 것으로 추산된다. 안양·군포·의왕시가 각각 물류센터를 확보하는 경우에는 총면적 1,426㎡, 공 동으로 물류센터를 확보하는 경우에는 1,026㎡ 규모의 물류 공간을 필요로 한 다. 물류센터 운영은 3개시가 개별적으로 설립하는 것보다 공동으로 설립하는 것이 비용을 절감할 수 있으며, 시청에서 직접 운영하는 것보다 민간에 위탁하 는 방식이 비용이 낮은 것으로 분석되었다. 학교급식지원센터 운영 인력은 3개 시가 개별적으로 운영하는 경우 36명, 공동운영하는 경우 23명의 인력이 소요 되어 연간 인건비는 개별 운영의 경우 12.1억원, 공동운영의 경우 7.7억원이 소 요될 것으로 분석되었다. 경제성 측면에서 3개시가 각각 학교급식지원센터를 설립하는 것보다 공동으로 설립·운영하는 것이 효율적이다. 3개시가 참여하는 학교급식 행정협의회를 구성하여 공동급식지원센터의 운 영과 관련된 계획 수립, 예산 배정 등 주요한 의사결정을 하는 것이 필요하다. 행정협의회의 의사결정 시 민간 자문기구의 의견을 반영하도록 하여 개별 시 의 특성을 반영하면서 민간 역량과의 연계를 강화하려는 노력이 요구된다. 공 동급식지원센터를 설립·운영하기 위해서는 관련된 조례의 제정 및 개정이 필 요하며, 필요한 예산 확보가 이루어져야 한다. 공동급식지원센터는 사업 추진 이 용이한 분야부터 단계적으로 사업 범위를 확대해 나가는 것이 필요하며, 사 업 범위에 따라 인력 규모도 단계적으로 확대하는 것이 합리적이다..
(7) v ABSTRACT. Feasibility study on establishment of joint school meal support center for Anyang city, Gunpo city, and Uiwang city. Variety issues related to school meal and school meal support center being discussed, but due to insufficient operating experience, discussion does not come to a conclusion. Ways to build joint school meal support center are discussed by Geographically adjacent, Anyang city, Gunpo city, and Uiwang city. By doing so, it is expected that efficient school meal supply system can be settled. The purpose of this study is to evaluate feasibility of joint school meal support center, and to suggest efficient ways to build it. Administrative Statistics of Anyang city, Gunpo city, and Uiwang city are utilized to find out present situation of schools, students, agriculture, food manufacture, and so on. Monthly usage data of school meal cooking ingredients in 2010 school year were analyzed to estimate commodity demand. To identify related issues, depth interviews were conducted with nutrition teachers, administration officials of school meal, and food suppliers. Japanese school meal system was analyze by literature. A Case Study of various regions in Korea was conducted. The feasibility of joint school meal support center was analyzed by benefit-cost analysis methods. Number of students reaches 157 thousands, 153 elementary, middle and high schools have been opened in Anyang city, Gunpo city, and Uiwang city. Proportion of weight of school meal food ingredients are as followed, processed food 48.7%, 23.2% fruit and vegetables, grain 15.1%, livestock 8.8%, fishery 4.2%. Total consumption size of commodities a year in elementary, middle and high schools is estimated to be 15,894 tons - grain 2,505 tons, 3,750 tons fruit and vegetables, livestock 1,501 tons, fishery 679 tons, processed foods 7,450 tons. Total amount of supply is estimated to be 59.1 billion won - grain 6.1 billion won, 14.3 billion won fruit and vegetables, livestock 12.4 billion won, fishery 5.9 billion won, processed foods 20.5 billion won. Joint logistics center of Anyang city, Gunpo city, and Uiwang city can reduce operation costs, compared to in case of operating their own logistics center. The analysis shows that logistics center can be efficiently.
(8) vi operated by private sector rather than operated by city. From an economic point of view, joint school meal support center is more efficient than centers operated individually. It is recommended to organize school meal administrative council to decide main issues related to operate joint school meal support center. The school meal administrative council has to reflect opinions of private sector advisories and NGOs. To operate joint school meal support center, related ordinace is enacted, and budget should be secured. Joint school meal support center expand its business area step by step. As the business grows, expanding size of organization would be reasonable.. Researchers: Gouk Seung-Yong, Research period: 2011. 10. - 2012. 5. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(9) vii. 차. 례. 제1장 서 론 1. 연구 배경과 필요성 ····················································································· 1 2. 연구목적 ········································································································ 3 3. 주요 연구내용 ······························································································· 3 4. 연구 방법 ······································································································ 5 제2장 학교급식 식재료 공급 현황 1. 학교 현황 ······································································································ 8 2. 학교급식 식재료 사용 실태 ········································································ 9 3. 식재료 공급계약과 배송 ············································································ 14 제3장 지역 식재료 생산 현황 1. 농업 생산 현황 ··························································································· 22 2. 가공식품 생산 현황 ··················································································· 25 3. 육가공공장 ··································································································· 28 제4장 학교급식과 식재료에 대한 인식 1. 영양교사의 인식 ························································································· 30 2. 학부모의 인식 ····························································································· 39 3. 설문조사 시사점 ························································································· 43 제5장 학교급식 식재료 공급체계 개선방안 1. 식재료 공급체계의 문제점 ········································································ 45 2. 학교급식 식재료 공급체계 개선 방향 ····················································· 58.
(10) viii 3. 학교급식지원센터의 기능 ·········································································· 64 제6장 학교급식 식재료 공급규모와 물류센터 확보방안 1. 안양·군포·의왕 식재료 공급 규모 ···························································· 68 2. 학교급식 식재료 물류센터 규모 추정 ····················································· 70 3. 물류센터 확보·운영 방안 검토 ································································· 74 제7장 학교급식지원센터 운영 방안 1. 물류 방식에 따른 학교급식지원센터 유형 ·············································· 83 2. 친환경 식재료 공급 방안 ·········································································· 86 3. 학교급식지원센터의 조직과 운영 ····························································· 94 4. 학교급식지원조례 개정 ············································································ 102 제8장 공동급식지원센터 설립 타당성 1. 공동급식지원센터의 경제적 편익 산정 ·················································· 106 2. 공동급식지원센터 비용 집계 ·································································· 109 3. 공동급식지원센터의 경제성 분석 ··························································· 111 제9장 공동급식지원센터 운영 계획 1. 공동급식지원센터 설립 준비위원회 구성 ·············································· 113 2. 공동급식지원센터 설립 ············································································ 114 3. 공동급식지원센터의 확대 ········································································ 116 4. 공동급식지원센터 연차별 예산 ······························································· 118 부록1: 안양·군포·의왕 3개시 학교급식 지원에 관한 조례 표준안 ····· 120 부록2: 공동급식지원센터 설치 및 운영에 관한 조례 표준안 ············· 125 부록3: 학교급식 행정협의회 운영규약(안) ············································· 129 부록4: 학교급식 식재료 공급 실태에 대한 영양교사 인식조사 ·········· 132.
(11) ix 부록5: 학교급식지원센터 설립·운영에 대한 학부모 의견조사 ············ 137 부록6: 일본 학교급식의 이해 ·································································· 140 부록7: 경기도 환경 학교급식 식재료 공급체계 타당성 분석 ············· 148 참고 문헌 ··········································································································· 172.
(12) x. 표 차 례. 제1장 표 1-1. 영양교사 설문 참여자 ······································································· 7 표 1-2. 학부모 설문 참여자 ··········································································· 7 제2장 표 2-1. 안양·군포·의왕시 학교 및 학생수 현황 ········································· 9 표 2-2. 식재료 사용 실태 분석 학교 현황 ················································ 10 표 2-3. 안양·군포·의왕시 월별 식재료 사용량 ········································· 11 표 2-4. 학교급식 식재료 종류 ····································································· 12 표 2-5. 학교급식 식재료 종류(상세 명세 수준) ········································ 13 제3장 표 3-1. 안양시 농업개황 ·············································································· 22 표 3-2. 안양시 품목별 농산물 생산 현황 ·················································· 23 표 3-3. 안양시 농업인 단체 ········································································· 23 표 3-4. 군포시 품목별 농산물 생산 현황 ·················································· 24 표 3-5. 의왕시 농업 개황 ············································································ 25 표 3-6. 의왕시 원예작물 생산현황 ····························································· 25 표 3-7. 식품제조업체 현황 ·········································································· 26 표 3-8. 안양시와 군포시의 가공식품 생산 현황 ······································· 27 표 3-9. 협신식품 주요시설과 처리능력 ······················································ 28 표 3-10. 축산물 HACCP 인증 사업체 ······················································· 29.
(13) xi 제6장 표 6-1. 부류별 학교급식 식재료 소요량 ·················································· 69 표 6-2. 부류별 학교급식 식재료 공급액 ·················································· 70 표 6-3. 월별 일평균 식재료 공급량 ························································· 71 표 6-4. 월별 일평균 식재료 공급량 ························································· 73 표 6-5. 물류센터 건립 비용 비교 ······························································· 76 표 6-6. 물류관리 인력 구성 ········································································· 77 표 6-7. 물류센터 운영비용 검토 ································································· 77 표 6-8. 개별 물류센터와 공동물류센터 투입비용 비교 ··························· 78 표 6-9. 물류 운영 형태별 연간 물류비 비교 ············································ 82 제7장 표 7-1. 학교급식지원센터 기능에 따른 유형 ············································ 84 표 7-2. 학교급식지원센터 유형별 분류 ······················································ 85 표 7-3. 경기도 학교급식지원센터 형태별 경제성 비교 ··························· 87 표 7-4. 급식지원센터 지원인력 구성 ·························································· 95 제8장 표 8-1. 대안별 편익 분석 시나리오 ························································· 108 표 8-2. 급식지원센터의 사회적 편익 ························································ 109 표 8-3. 급식지원센터의 비용 집계 ··························································· 110 표 8-4. 급식지원센터 편익/비용 비교 ······················································ 112 제9장 표 9-1. 연차별 예산 ···················································································· 118 표 9-2. 시별 예산 분담안 ·········································································· 119.
(14) xii 부표 부표 1. 일본 공립 초·중학교 조리방식별 완전급식 실시 현황 (07년 5월 1일 현재) ····································································· 141 부표 2. 일본 학교급식에 있어서 전반적 식재의 구입상황 비율 (복수응답 허용) ············································································· 144 부표 3. 경기도 학교 현황(2009) ······························································· 152 부표 4. G마크 학교급식 체계 ··································································· 153 부표 5. 경기도 농산물 부류별 자급률(2008) ··········································· 154 부표 6. 경기도 채소류 주요 품목의 자급률(2008) ································· 155 부표 7. 양평군의 학교급식 자급률(2010 상반기) ··································· 156 부표 8. 경기도 시군별 채소 자급률 ························································· 157 부표 9. 경기도 시군별 채소류 조달 유형 ················································ 159 부표 10. 시군과 거점간 이동거리와 1일 필요 차량 ······························ 164 부표 11. 시군별 급식 체계의 요소비용 집계 ·········································· 165 부표 12. 거점별 급식사업 규모 ································································ 167 부표 13. 거점 급식 체계의 요소비용 집계 ·············································· 167 부표 14. 중앙 급식 체계의 요소비용 집계 ·············································· 168 부표 15. 급식체계 유형별 요소비용 비교 ··············································· 168 부표 16. 규모에 따른 학교급식 지원센터 인력구성 ······························ 171.
(15) xiii. 그 림 차 례. 제1장 그림 1-1. 연구추진 체계 ················································································ 6 제2장 그림 2-1. 학교급식 식재료 부류별 중량 구성비 ······································· 10 그림 2-2. 학교급식 식재료 부류별 금액 구성비 ······································· 12 그림 2-3. 식재료 공급계약 건수 ································································· 15 그림 2-4. 친환경농산물 공급체계 ······························································· 15 그림 2-5. 공급업체의 식재료 공급 ····························································· 16 제4장 그림 4-1. 친환경 식재료에 대한 선호 ························································ 31 그림 4-2. 친환경 식재료를 선호하는 이유 ················································ 31 그림 4-3. 친환경 식재료 이용이 어렵다고 느끼는 이유 ························· 32 그림 4-4. 지역산 식재료에 대한 선호 ························································ 33 그림 4-5. 지역의 공간적 범위 ····································································· 33 그림 4-6. 지역산 식재료 이용이 어렵다고 느끼는 이유 ························· 34 그림 4-7. 학교급식지원센터의 이점 ··························································· 35 그림 4-8. 학교급식지원센터 시 불편한 점 ················································ 35 그림 4-9. 학교급식지원센터의 필요성 ························································ 36 그림 4-10. 학교급식지원센터의 기능 ························································· 37 그림 4-11. 공동구매의 기대효과 ································································· 37 그림 4-12. 공동구매 시 우려되는 사항 ······················································ 38 그림 4-13. 식재료 공동구매 범위 ······························································· 38.
(16) xiv 그림 4-14. 학교급식 식재료의 품질 ··························································· 39 그림 4-15. 학교급식 식단에 대한 만족 ······················································ 40 그림 4-16. 친환경농산물 사용에 대한 의견 ·············································· 40 그림 4-17. 학교급식지원센터에 대한 인지도 ············································ 41 그림 4-18. 식재료 공동구매의 필요성 ························································ 41 그림 4-19. 학교급식지원센터의 필요성 ······················································ 42 그림 4-20. 식재료 공동구매 범위 ······························································· 42 제5장 그림 5-1. 학교급식 식재료비 구조 ····························································· 50 그림 5-2. 학교급식지원센터의 기능 ··························································· 65 제6장 그림 6-1. 경기도 학령별 학생수 전망 ························································ 73 그림 6-2. 도매시장 수수료 및 마진구조 ···················································· 75 제7장 그림 7-1. 지역 식재료 공급 체계 ······························································· 92 그림 7-2. 지자체직영 방식 공동급식지원센터의 조직 ····························· 98 그림 7-3. 지자체 직영 방식과 독립법인 방식의 장단점 비교 ·············· 100 그림 7-4. 식재료 현물지원 체계 ······························································· 102.
(17) 1. 제. 1. 서. 장. 론. 1. 연구 배경과 필요성. ◦ 친환경 학교급식이 확대됨에 따라 학교급식지원센터의 위상과 기능에 대한 논의가 확대되고 있음. - 친환경농산물은 시장에서 구입하기 곤란하기 때문에 계약재배 등을 통 해 안정적인 물량을 확보해야 함. - 지역마다 형태는 다소 상이하나 학교급식지원센터를 활용하여 친환경농 산물을 안정적으로 공급할 수 있는 체계를 확보하는 등의 노력이 이루어 지고 있음. ◦ 학교급식지원센터는 크게 사업범위에 따라 시군구센터, 거점센터, 광역센터 등으로 구분할 수 있음. - 시군을 사업범위로 하는 시군센터는 경기 하남·시흥·고양 등과 경북 안 동, 경남 김해 등이 있음. - 다수의 시군을 사업범위로 하는 거점센터는 전남 나주·순천, 충북 청원 등이 있음. - 이들 거점센터는 처음에는 시군센터로 출발하였으나 효율성 제고 차원.
(18) 2 에서 인근 시군으로 사업범위를 확대함. - 광역시나 도를 사업범위로 하는 광역센터는 경기도와 서울시에서 운영 되고 있음. ◦ 학교급식지원센터의 기능은 초기 친환경농산물 공급에 초점을 맞추었으나, 점차 취급 품목을 확대해 나가고 있음. - 서울시 성북구 학교급식지원센터는 독립된 물류 기능은 수행하지 않지 만 쌀과 김치에 대해 공동구매를 실시하고 있음. - 안양시 40개 초등학교는 교육지원청의 관할 하에 주요 10개 가공식품에 대한 공동구매를 실시함. - 경기도는 G마크 인증 가공식품을 학교급식지원센터의 공급물품에 포함 하여 김치, 콩나물, 두부 등을 부분적으로 공급하고 있음. ◦ 학교급식지원센터와 관련된 다양한 논의가 진행되고 있으나 그 운영 경험이 충분하지 못하여 시행착오가 발생하고 있음. - 전남의 경우 초기 시군센터 중심으로 학교급식지원센터가 형성되었으나, 물류 효율성 등의 측면에서 다수의 시군을 통합한 거점센터로 사업방향 을 전환하고 있음. 하지만, 기존 시군센터 사업의 거점센터로 이관이 원 활하게 추진되지 못하는 사례도 발생하고 있음. - 경기도의 경우 도 차원의 광역센터에서 친환경농산물 공급망을 구축하 고 있으나, 일부 시군에서 시군센터를 신설하는 과정에서 사업에 대한 협의가 원활하게 진행되지 않는 경우가 있음. - 친환경농산물 이외의 다양한 학교급식 식재료의 공급 등 학교급식지원 센터의 기능과 위상에 대한 다각적인 논의가 이루어지고 있으나 안정된 사업모델에 대한 충분한 검증이 이루어지지 못하고 있음. ◦ 안양·군포·의왕시는 상호 지리적으로 근거리에 인접한 동일한 생활권에 있 어 학교급식지원센터를 각각 설치·운영하는 것보다 소프트웨어 중심의 공동.