Performance Goal 2.2.1: Strengthen Regional Economic Integration

문서에서 FY 2015 Annual Performance Report FY 2017 Annual Performance Plan (페이지 62-68)

Performance Goal Statement: By September 30, 2017, U.S. diplomatic engagement and assistance will achieve key steps toward achieving trade and investment liberalization and regional economic integration in the Asia-Pacific, including through the Trans-Pacific Partnership, ASEAN economic community, the Lower Mekong Initiative, and APEC.

Performance Goal Overview

The United States “rebalance” to the Asia-Pacific reflects the recognition that the future security and prosperity of our nation will be significantly defined by events and developments in that region. The State Department’s economic engagement in the Asia-Pacific is a key element of the U.S. rebalance policy. Trade and investment liberalization and improved economic integration will support growth and stability in the region, and create job opportunities here at home. The Asia-Pacific is home to some of the world’s largest and fastest growing economies, but it is also a region marked by differing levels of development and divergent standards, regulations, and trade and investment regimes. Some of these differences present barriers to trade and investment, including patchy and unclear regulatory frameworks and unnecessary red tape, which raise the difficulty and costs of doing business. State Department and USAID activities within the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Lower Mekong Initiative (LMI), and in support of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations, aim to overcome these challenges and foster greater regional economic integration.

TPP negotiations are still ongoing due to outstanding issues in a limited number of areas, including market access, intellectual property, and rules of origin. Despite facing a variety of challenges in the domestic political environments of TPP parties, including the United States, the Department has engaged in extensive outreach with our negotiating partners to resolve outstanding issues. Despite these challenges, we have made significant progress towards the conclusion of negotiations and expect negotiations will yield a comprehensive and high-standard TPP agreement that will support jobs and economic growth across the Asia Pacific region. The agreement will help us advance trade and investment ties, labor and human rights, and environmental

protection. Completion of the TPP is going to be crucial for expanding market access in the Asia-Pacific for U.S.

companies and products and addressing new and emerging trade issues and 21st-century challenges, but also will reflect U.S. priorities and values, especially in the areas of labor and the environment.

APEC Connectivity Blueprint: Envisioned in 2013, APEC Leaders in 2014 endorsed a regional APEC Connectivity Blueprint 2015-2025 in order to bring diverse markets, businesses and people closer together to facilitate trade and investment for delivering greater long-term growth across the Asia-Pacific. This strategic document covers physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity encompassing goals like increasing tourism flows, creating better public-private partnerships, expanding internet access, improving transportation routes and

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infrastructure, and increasing renewable energy projects. EAP/EP led the U.S. efforts in negotiating this document on behalf of the United States, and all relevant agencies will be reporting progress through their relevant APEC working groups over the next 10 years.

The ASEAN Economic Community launched at the end of 2015 continues to provide a framework for the establishment of a single market and production base in Southeast Asia. In addition to deepening commercial economic engagement with ASEAN in this integrated economy, we will continue to provide technical support and capacity building for a policy environment conducive to trade and investment, entrepreneurship, innovation and sustainable and equitable economic growth. Activities will target trade facilitation efforts, such as the ASEAN Single Window for customs clearance, enhanced access for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to finance and markets, standards harmonization, and best practices promotion in investment, ICT and SME development.

The United States is sponsoring a statement on Cyber Security Cooperation for the EAS that has so far received wide support. We are supporting Indonesia's EAS Statement on Enhancing Maritime Cooperation, which has received varying degrees of support from Member States themselves but will likely be adopted in November.

The U.S. continues to support ASEAN transnational crime mechanisms, through support for the senior officials meeting on transnational crime, and will implement trainings and programs on trafficking in persons in the near future.

The Lower Mekong Initiative (LMI) primarily provides capacity building technical trainings to government, civil society, academia, and others to improve application of best practices in policy-making, infrastructure

development, national planning, and other sectors under the six LMI pillars and cross-cutting themes. One example is the Third Country Training Program with Singapore, where the United States and Singapore jointly fund trainings on topics ranging from counterfeit and substandard medications, disaster response, trade facilitation and investment, sustainable urban transportation, the climate health nexus, energy efficient buildings, and other topics for the benefit of LMI and ASEAN members. LMI projects aim to build collaboration on trans-boundary development and policy challenges in the region among LMI partner countries and through technical assistance from U.S. experts and donor partners. In February 2015, the United States participated in the Extraordinary Meeting of Friends of the Lower Mekong. The purpose of the meeting was to hold an interagency, multilateral dialogue on the importance of environmental sustainability in infrastructure development and to raise regional political will to pursue sustainability as a development pathway.

The United States is working to further confidence-building measures in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) by taking a proactive role in sponsoring events, promoting statements and declarations, and building consensus among members. Key steps in this process include working with like-minded members to generate ideas and align viewpoints and cooperating with ASEAN member states to understand their viewpoints and identify regional needs. Milestones achieved included hosting the ARF inter-sessional meeting on maritime security;

organizing a workshop to examine the gaps and timing for regional disaster relief exercises; participating in the 2015 ARF Disaster Relief Exercise; authoring a statement approved by ARF foreign ministers to strengthen cooperation on marine environmental protection and conservation; co-chairing a series of oil spill workshops;

and organizing workshops to address counter-terrorism and transnational crime issues, including migration and

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Strategic Goal 2: Strengthen America’s Foreign Policy Impact On our Strategic Challenges

assistance for victims of terrorism. Regarding threats to international security, obstacles include the

institutional mindset of the ARF and its consensus-based nature, which precludes its ability to take firm, clear, and proactive stances on relevant political security issues.

Performance Goal Progress Update

Key Indicator: Percentage of participants in U.S.-funded APEC capacity building activities responding that they applied trade and investment liberalization practices

FY 2014 Baseline FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A 50% 60% 65%

Result N/A 82%

Indicator Analysis

This indicator measures whether participants in such activities are applying the learning received when they return to their home agencies and daily jobs. Consequently, participants are equipped with the skills needed to promote policy reforms which contribute to our mutual trade and investment liberalization, regional economic integration, and economic growth goals in the region. This indicator is intended to capture whether participants found it relevant to their job and ministry/office’s mission and will consequently be able to perform their jobs more effectively or whether participants shared the outcomes of the capacity building activity with their colleagues within their ministries at home to affect long term trade liberalization practices. This indicator may also capture whether participants actually applied the learning to make some kind of change domestically in the form of a process change or legal or policy reform, though this outcome is more directly captured through the next performance indicator.

Indicator Methodology

Participants in U.S.-funded APEC capacity building activities will be surveyed electronically one year after the training to ascertain whether and how they have applied what they learned in the training or workshops. The survey is conducted by the implementing partner and included in annual reports. The target refers to the percentage of participants who respond to the survey that state that they have applied learning. There have been challenges with data collection that may impact quality as follows:

• Some training participants are rating themselves as expert in the pre- questionnaire making it impossible for them to improve by 10 percent; and

• Response rates to the follow up survey have been difficult to achieve with some surveys.

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Strategic Goal 2: Strengthen America’s Foreign Policy Impact On our Strategic Challenges

Key Indicator: Percentage of participants in U.S.-funded APEC capacity building activities responding that laws, regulations or processes in their home economy were influenced by the trade and investment liberalization practices shared

FY 2014 Baseline FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A 3% 5% 7%

Result N/A 31%

Indicator Analysis

This indicator will measure whether participants in U.S.-funded capacity building workshops and activities, implemented within the APEC framework, indicate that laws, regulations, or processes in their home economy were influenced by the trade and investment liberalization practices shared, taught, and/or learned during that U.S.-funded capacity building activity. The outcomes measured by this indicator are beyond the direct

manageable interest of the program, as policy reforms are the result of many variables beyond the capacity to undertake such reforms. Moreover, reforms are generally time-consuming and would likely occur in the medium-term. This indicator builds on the previous key indicator, and seeks to demonstrate whether the knowledge and skills acquired during U.S.-funded capacity building are influencing policy changes domestically in the short term. Such policy changes would be important steps toward reaching our mutual trade and investment liberalization, economic integration, and economic growth goals in the region.

Indicator Methodology

Participants in U.S.-funded APEC capacity building activities will be surveyed electronically one year after the training to ascertain whether and how information shared during trainings or workshops may have influenced policy changes in that economy. The survey is conducted by the implementing partner and included in annual reports. The percentage share of these respondents stated that what they learned influenced the adoption or amendment of relevant policies in their home economy. Electronic surveys sometimes have low response rates, which may introduce bias into results.

The follow-up survey is being conducted one-year after the workshop. This may introduce recall bias, and it is possible that respondents will have received trainings on the same topics which may contaminate findings.

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Strategic Goal 2: Strengthen America’s Foreign Policy Impact On our Strategic Challenges

Key Indicator: Number of technical meetings held with U.S. government support among U.S. government and Asian counterparts to strengthen mutual cooperation

FY 2014 Baseline FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A 75 57 57

Result 69 58

Indicator Analysis

This indicator counts the number of meeting events supported directly by the United States Government, by the ACTI or PROGRESS programs, or by other U.S.-supported programs that involve U.S. government officials

engaging on the economic and social integration objectives of ASEAN which contribute to the U.S. “rebalance to Asia” policy. The State Department’s engagement in the Asia-Pacific, particularly on the economic side, is a key element of the U.S. rebalance policy. Trade and investment liberalization and improved social and economic integration, strengthen growth and stability in the region, and create job opportunities both in the United States and in ASEAN countries. The Asia-Pacific is home to some of the world’s largest and fastest growing economies, but also is a region marked by differing levels of development and divergent standards, regulations, and trade and investment regimes. Some of these differences present barriers to trade and investment, including non-tariff trade barriers and unclear administrative processes, which raise the difficulty and costs of doing business.

Social aspects such as addressing labor migration issues, trafficking and human rights concerns also impact the viability of the ASEAN Economic Community and economic opportunities for the United States in the ASEAN region. In partnership with ASEAN and APEC, USAID enhances regional integration and fosters inclusive

economic growth in Southeast Asia by supporting regional policy dialogues and standards. Supporting ASEAN’s goal of economic integration, USAID helps enable efficient, transparent and sustainable trade practices and facilitate regularized labor mobility. State Department and USAID activities in support of ASEAN aim to overcome these challenges and foster greater regional economic integration.

Sectoral topics with relevance to this indicator include (but are not limited to): single window, trade facilitation, improved labor conditions, counter trafficking in persons, improved legal environment for trade and investment or judicial cooperation/networking in support of the ASEAN Economic Community. A “technical meeting” is a meeting held with U.S. government and ASEAN representation to share technical information, to conduct a dialog about mutually agreed objectives and progress towards those objectives, or to provide training or technical advisement on a particular topic. This indicator does not count: routine management meetings with ASEAN government representatives; national consultations with one government unless they are linked to a larger U.S. Government engagement on a particular issue with ASEAN.

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Strategic Goal 2: Strengthen America’s Foreign Policy Impact On our Strategic Challenges

Indicator Methodology

Data Source: Number of meetings relevant to this indicator are tracked by the implementing partners and reported to USAID via quarterly reporting. USAID’s Regional Development Mission for Asia gathers data through the ASEAN programs managed by USAID including ACTI and PROGRESS.

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Strategic Goal 2: Strengthen America’s Foreign Policy Impact On our Strategic Challenges

Strategic Objective 2.3: Prevent and Respond to Crises and Conflict, Tackle

문서에서 FY 2015 Annual Performance Report FY 2017 Annual Performance Plan (페이지 62-68)

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