Performance Goal 4.1.1: Strengthen Democratic Institutions

문서에서 FY 2015 Annual Performance Report FY 2017 Annual Performance Plan (페이지 146-151)

Performance Goal Statement: By September 30, 2017, identify and pursue democratic institution-building priorities in 20-25 countries where democratic institutions are weak or missing.

Performance Goal Overview

Countries with freely elected, accountable, and representative governments contribute to a freer, more prosperous, and peaceful world. Around the world, transitioning democracies are dealing with predictable setbacks in their quest for political change and are often stunted by the persistence of poor economic performance, social inequality, and societal instability. New democracies that are not yet able to deliver effective governance and rule of law risk the reputation of the system as well as the support of its citizens.

Authoritarian governments repress civil society, which is the bedrock of any hope for change.

The Department of State and USAID therefore work to strengthen democratic institutions and processes including through improved electoral administration, enhanced citizen oversight, and political party-building.

Because there is no democracy without the inclusion of women and underrepresented groups, the U.S.

government also works to ensure their full participation in every aspect of these processes. Strong, moderate, issues-based democratic parties are particularly integral to ensuring healthy political debate and progress that recognizes the importance of all voices in a society.

Only a nation itself—its people—can truly bring about sustainable democracy within its borders. Studies show that democratic progress can take decades, and setbacks are common. Consistent U.S. engagement is necessary to contribute to sustainable progress.

Performance Goal Progress Update

In 2015, the State Department was a leading advocate for democratic reform in Sri Lanka, where the people confronted the corruption and nepotism of the former Rajapaksa regime and democratically elected a new leader in January. In September, the Department spearheaded a successful resolution at the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) calling for justice and accountability in Sri Lanka; marking a historic recognition of the

importance of credible transitional justice processes in promoting reconciliation and ensuring an enduring peace and prosperity for all Sri Lankans. The Sri Lankan government co-sponsored the resolution and has committed

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itself to respecting human rights, domestic justice, and reconciliation processes that meet international standards and are developed through inclusive dialogue and consultation with all stakeholders.

In Nigeria, the Department’s Fundamental Freedoms Fund (FFF) supported a National Democratic

Institute/International Republican Institute (NDI/IRI) election observation mission in Nigeria to ensure that April’s historic presidential elections were credible and transparent. The Department encouraged the Nigerian government, the Independent National Election Commission (INEC), and security forces to increase efforts to reduce the likelihood of electoral violence by building public confidence in the process, pressing senior political leaders to denounce violence, and calling on their supporters and voters to do the same. The Department also ensured that there was a rapid response mechanism in place should the situation on the ground necessitate a programmatic response.

In Tunisia, the Department worked to support the country’s nascent civil society and labor unions by providing avenues for collaboration and engagement with the Government of Tunisia, including through the establishment of a civil society dialogue prior to the April 2015 U.S.-Tunisia Strategic Dialogue. The Department continues to engage with Tunisian Ministries, including the Ministry of Interior, to promote greater accountability and enhance public communication of key reforms, including decentralization and security and economic reforms.

Some of the civil society organizations the Department has supported were recognized as part of the “Quartet”

that received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2015 for their role in helping Tunisia’s transition to democracy. The Department also continues to engage with Tunisia as it prepares for timely, free and fair municipal elections by the end of 2016 as a means to engage youth and those in the interior and south vulnerable to radicalization in political processes.

The Department also consistently raised the plight of democracy, fundamental freedoms, and human rights in Venezuela. In May, the Department organized a dialogue between Venezuelan journalists in Caracas and Washington officials and civil society representatives. This gave civil society representatives and journalists from print, radio, TV, and the web an opportunity to discuss the state of press freedom in Venezuela. The

Department also led efforts to impose travel restrictions on current and former Venezuelan government officials believed to be responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses.

The U.S. Government continues to follow through on its long-standing commitment to the people of Burma, a commitment which will continue after the political transition next year. Burma held a peaceful and historic election in 2015, during which millions of people voted for the first time. The election set the stage for what could be Burma’s first peaceful transfer of power in more than five decades. The Department and USAID played a major role in building capacity among all key stakeholders in advance of the elections, including the Union Election Commission, domestic election observers, political parties, civil society, voters, and the media. In October, the Government of Burma concluded a multi-party cease-fire agreement with eight ethnic armed groups, which will hopefully be an important first step in the process of building a sustainable and just peace in Burma. The Department is supporting national reconciliation and inclusive and transparent peace processes that increase humanitarian access to populations in need and lays the foundation for political resolution to long-standing conflicts and durable peace.

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Strategic Goal 4: Protect Core U.S. Interests by Advancing Democracy and Human Rights and Strengthening Civil Society

Key Indicator: Number of executive oversight actions taken by legislature receiving U.S. assistance FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013

Baseline FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A N/A N/A 75 181 84 63

Result 317 279 359 254 81

Indicator Analysis

A critical function of democratic legislatures is to monitor and conduct oversight of executive branch actions and performance. In FY 2015, legislatures in a number of countries took significant actions to address government corruption and mismanagement.

Countries reporting that legislatures receiving U.S. assistance took executive oversight actions in FY 2015 included: Armenia, Kenya, Kosovo, Niger, and Zimbabwe. While progress exceeded expectations in several countries, the U.S. government did not meet its FY 2015 target for this indicator as a result of several factors such as the early closure of programming, delayed establishment or impaired functioning of target legislatures, and a decline in political will for accountability and oversight actions in some countries.

Indicator Methodology

Data Source: FY 2015 Performance Reports as collected in the Foreign Assistance Coordination and Tracking System.

Data Quality: Performance data are verified using Data Quality Assessments (DQA) and must meet five data quality standards of validity, integrity, precision, reliability, and timeliness. The methodology used for

conducting the DQAs must be well documented by each OU. (For details, refer to USAID's Automated Directive System [ADS] Chapter 203.3.11, http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/200/203.pdf).

Key Indicator: Number of U.S.-supported activities designed to promote or strengthen the civic participation of women

FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013

Baseline FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A N/A N/A 231 181 73 59

Result 325 279 359 106 221

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Indicator Analysis

The target captures activities that USAID expects to implement under the Global Women's Leadership Fund, which supports the participation of women in peace processes, negotiations around political transitions, donor conferences, or other decision-making processes relevant to conflict prevention and resolution, democratic development, and human rights.

Additional activities to promote women's civic participation may be supported in the context of USAID-supported emergency programming. The U.S. Government exceeded its FY 2015 target by 40 activities;

however, as this programming is contingency-based, targets for out-years cannot be set with a reasonable degree of certainty.

Indicator Methodology

Data Source: FY 2015 Performance Reports as collected in the Foreign Assistance Coordination and Tracking System.

Data Quality: Performance data are verified using Data Quality Assessments (DQA) and must meet five data quality standards of validity, integrity, precision, reliability, and timeliness. The methodology used for

conducting the DQAs must be well documented by each OU. (For details, refer to USAID's Automated Directive System [ADS] Chapter 203.3.11, http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/200/203.pdf).

Key Indicator: Number of domestic election observers and/or party agents trained with U.S. assistance FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013

Baseline FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A N/A N/A 27,984 14,600 20,397 4,400

Result 9,006 29,323 41,302 28,892 40,398

Indicator Analysis

In FY 2015 the U.S. Government exceeded its target for the number of domestic election observers or party agents trained by over 25,000 due to factors such as the postponement of elections, which allowed more time for training of election observers than anticipated originally (e.g., Nigeria) and needs for observers that

exceeded initial estimates due to the decoupling of executive and legislative branch elections in some countries.

One major contributing program for this indicator is USAID’s Elections and Political Processes (EPP) Fund. The EPP Fund provides assistance in cases of critical unanticipated need to support free and fair electoral and political processes in mission countries.

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Strategic Goal 4: Protect Core U.S. Interests by Advancing Democracy and Human Rights and Strengthening Civil Society

Indicator Methodology

Data Source: FY 2015 Performance Reports as collected in the Foreign Assistance Coordination and Tracking System.

Data Quality: Performance data are verified using Data Quality Assessments (DQA) and must meet five data quality standards of validity, integrity, precision, reliability, and timeliness. The methodology used for

conducting the DQAs must be well documented by each OU. (For details, refer to USAID's Automated Directive System [ADS] Chapter 203.3.11, http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/200/203.pdf).

Key Indicator: Number of individuals/groups from low income or marginalized communities who received legal aid or victim’s assistance with U.S. support

FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013

Baseline FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017

Target N/A N/A N/A 87,460 168,306 171,181 25,938

Result 1,322 37,254 36,759 185,631 257,232

Indicator Analysis

One of the largest contributing programs to this indicator remains USAID’s program in Ethiopia. In FY 2015, targets were exceeded by over 60,000 due to two main reasons. First, USAID increased the number of service centers providing free legal services from 39 to 43 and added four legal aid centers in the four main prisons of Gursum, Grawa, Deder and Gelemso. Finally, the success of the program is spreading via “word-of-mouth” in women’s and other centers, and even the courts referring people to the service centers. Activities have improved access to justice and legal awareness of the neediest populations across East/West Hararghe Zones and Harari regional state. By the end of FY 2015, over 190,000 people received legal aid services--up 90 percent from FY 2014--through 40 legal aid centers, more than half of which are women.

USAID’s programming in Sri Lanka also significantly contributes to this indicator. In FY 2015, 31,492 individuals from low income or marginalized communities across Sri Lanka received legal aid or victim’s assistance through the Supporting Professional and Institutional Capacity Enhancement project, Civil Society Initiatives to Promote the Rule of Law Program, and Human Rights First programs.

Indicator Methodology

Data Source: FY 2015 Performance Reports as collected in the Foreign Assistance Coordination and Tracking System.

Data Quality: Performance data are verified using Data Quality Assessments (DQA) and must meet five data quality standards of validity, integrity, precision, reliability, and timeliness. The methodology used for

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Strategic Goal 4: Protect Core U.S. Interests by Advancing Democracy and Human Rights and Strengthening Civil Society

conducting the DQAs must be well documented by each OU. (For details, refer to USAID's Automated Directive System [ADS] Chapter 203.3.11, http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/200/203.pdf).

문서에서 FY 2015 Annual Performance Report FY 2017 Annual Performance Plan (페이지 146-151)

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