Land Administration in Norway

문서에서 토지관리정보체계 (페이지 43-72)

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략

2. Land Administration in Norway

노르웨이 국립토지측량청

Dr. Helge Onsrud

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 43

1. National Geospatial Infrastructure in Norway

Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA)

From mapfactory to national centre for geographic information

that creates value

Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA)

From mapfactory to national resource for geographic information that creates value

Q The national supplier and manager of geographic information

Q State enterprise under the Ministry of the Environment

Q 19 offices nation-wide

Q Annual revenue NOK 525 million (2000)

Q 612 staff

Q Founded 1773

Q Covers Norwegian land, coastal and territorial waters

44 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵



Establish, update and manage a national geodata-infrastructure - “Norway digital”


Make data and products from “Norway digital” available for private and public customers


Work closely with public and private sectors to develop cartographic technology and expertise


Support export efforts of Norwegian mapping companies

Dual Roles

Basic activities Sales and contractors

Products and services

Government contracts and budget allocation Sales revenues


Establish and manage ”Norway digital”

OGeodetic bases

OPrimary dataseries

OSea and land maps

OAerial- and satellite imagery

OStandards for geodata


Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 45

”Norway digital”

A National Geodata Infrastructure

Primary dataseries

Establishing and updating of “Norway digital”

Q Municipalities

Q Public Road Administration

Q Telenor (telecoms)

Q Electricity companies

Q Agriculture

Q NSB (railways)

Q Norwegian Mapping Authority

Players Endeavour

Q Joint mapping following annual geodata plans

Q Establish and update primary data according to Map Database


Q Joint use of databases

Q NOK 114 million (2000)

46 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

National Geophysical and Geodetic Bases

QNation-wide network of co-ordinated points

National base points Permanent stations Primary net - 1st class

Primary net - 2nd class Primary net - 3rd class

Co-operation in and technology for establishing global reference frame

113 points

Q Permanent tidal observation stations

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 47

245 m unicipalities finished 68 m unicipalities in w ork 122 m unicipalities not started

Establishing of prim ary net - 3rd class

Status 31.12.2000

Acurate Positioning - SATREF


GPS-satellites GPS-satellites


Reference-station Control centre

Reference-station Control centre



48 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵


Control centre Reference stations

Data broadcasting

Via radio-beacons

Responsible: Coastal Administration Via FM-network

Responsible: Norkring and Norwegian Mapping Authority

Acurate Positioning - SATREF




Administrative boundaries

Place names

Road network


Depth countours

Coastal contours and islands

Water contours

Triangulation points


Uniform, nation-wide digital data for essential sea and land themes


Basis for digital and analogue products


Primary dataseries


Established and updated via county geodata co-operation

National Primary

National Primary Dataseries Dataseries

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 49

National Digital and Analogue

Map and Chart Series and Publications

Q Map and raster data for land areas in scales

 1:5 000, 1:50 000, 1:250 000, 1:500 000, 1:1 million, 1:2 million and 1:5 million

Q Electronic nautical charts

Q Printed map and chart series

 Large scale maps (1:5 000), 1:50,000 maps, Main coastal charts, Harbour charts, General charts and Fishery plotting charts Q Publications

 The Norwegian Pilot, Notices to Mariners, Tidal Tables, National Atlas

Services in Data Management and Distribution

National Geographic Information Centre (NGIS)

Q NMA’s common approach for managing and distributing data

Q Supports both internal management and products and services for the market

Q Web-based catalogue services with information about digital data and printed maps


Q Web shop for digital data (not finished)

Management, information, sales and distribution


50 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

M anagem ent Tasks and

National Professional Resource

Q The Place Nam e Act

Q The Land Subdivision Act

Q Adm inistrative boundaries

Q National and international standardisation

Q Co-ordination of m ap and geodata activities

Q Co-operate in research and developm ent

Q Support export efforts of Norwegian m apping com panies Managem ent tasks

National professional resource

Digital Products

Q Map data (N5, N50, N250, N500, N1000, N2000 and N5000 )

Q Raster data (N5, N50, N250 and N1000)

Q GAB (properties, addresses, buildings)

Q Road database (VBASE)

Q Digital property maps (DEK)

Q Names from central place name register (SSR)

Q Administrative boundaries

Q Electronic charts

Q Fisheries database

Q Triangulation points

Q CD-ROM products

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 51

Printed Products

Q1:50 000 map series

QLarge scale map series (1:5 000)

QPlace name registers


QHistorical maps

QMain charts 1:50 000

QHarbour charts

QGeneral charts

QFisheries charts

QHydrographic fair sheets

QSmall craft charts

Q”The Norwegian Pilot”

(sailing directions)

QTide Tables

QNotices to Mariners

QHistorical charts

Land Sea

Principal Commitments for realizing

“Norway digital” within 2006

Q Primary dataseries finished 2006 and map database 1:50 000 finished 2001

Q Covering the Norwegian coast with modern electronic and printed charts witin 2006

Q Establish and operate a national area- and resource-information system

Q Etablish and operate a national property information system

Q Develop SATREF for positioning with centimetres accuracy

Q National Geographic Information Centre (NGIS)

52 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

Creating primary data


Primary data in cities, built-up areas, farmland, forests and mountain areas (FKB A, B, C and D standards)


Created, updated and managed via “Geovekst”


“Geovekst” projects have annual value of NOK 114 million


As at 1 January 2000, close to 40% of relevant area covered


Primary data are basis for derived databases, digital and analogue products

Property and Adress Information

Users Needs

Public administration

Q Managing, planning, processing

Q Rationalisation, national and municipal

Q Taxes and fees

Q Criminal cases

Private sector

Q Owners, buyers and sellers of properties (including public-sector organisations)

Q Financial institutions, insurance companies

Q Estate agents, assessors and valuers

Q Auditors, lawyers

Q Building consultants (architects, consultant engineers, etc.)

Q Rationalisation in private sector, as in transport

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 53

Private financing and property management

Public sector processing and operation Plan approval

54 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵


Goal: a modernised, improved basis for county and municipal decisionmaking in area resource planning


Creating and managing georeferenced environmental and natural resource data for use in GIS


Joint county distribution databases, managed by County Map Offices

Area Information Systems - Arealis

Better area

Area Information Systems - Arealis

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 55

Electronic Charts along the Norwegian Coast

The whole coast covered with modern maps in 2006

Finished Planned

Priority 1 Priority 2 Priority 3 Priority 4 Priority 5 Priority 6

IT-infrastructure for “Norway digital”

Regional level

Local level

National level

Norwegian Mapping Authority -the central manager of geodata


56 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

D istribution via W W W

W h o ville

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 57

Assistant Director Erik Perstuen Assistant Director Erik Perstuen

Economy Director

John Naustdal Quality

Resource Director Leif Grønnevik Resource Director Leif Grønnevik

Fylkeskartkontorer - 18

OPlan-, Area-, Environmental data

OM aps and Map Data

OTechnology, Production Development

OM anagement Technical Directors:

OProperty Information


OPlan-, Area-, Environmental data

OM aps and Map Data

OTechnology, Production Development

OM anagement

Sections Fylkeskartkontorer - 18 Fylkeskartkontorer - 18 Fylkeskartkontorer - 18 Fylkeskartkontorer - 18County M ap Offices- 18County M ap Offices- 18

Land Mapping Division

Global Basis Reference Data

and Infrastructure National Basis


Director Bjørn Engen


Global Basis Reference Data

and Infrastructure National Basis

58 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

Info, IT, Finance, Adm

Surveys Data

Info, IT, Finance, Adm

Surveys Data

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 59

Norwegian Mapping Authority


Q Hønefoss

 Management and common functions

 Land Mapping Division

 Geodetic Institute

 County Map Offices Q Svalbard

 Geodetic Observatory Q Hønefoss

 Management and common functions

 Land Mapping Division

 Geodetic Institute

 County Map Offices Q Svalbard

60 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

W eb Site

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 61

2. Land Administration in Norway

Land Administration in Norway Introduction

Helge Onsrud

Senior Advisor Statens kartverk

Norway in brief (1)

• 324.000 sqkm

• 4,5 million inhabitants

• three levels of public administration

– 1 state

– 19 counties

– 435 municipalities – 87 local courts

• 2,4 million properties

62 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

Norway in brief (2)

• 95 % of properties in private ownership

• 80 % of families own their house

• 99 % of farms owned by private, single farmers - 20 hectares on average

• Only high mountains in general state ownership

• Almost all construction financed by mortgaging

History of ownership

• King and church owned majority of land until 1650. Started then to sell to private

• First known register from year 1250

• Computerised registers established 1985-90

• Digital cadastral maps under establishment

• Professional surveying only since 1980

• New law on the cadastre pending in


Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 63

Two basic registers

• Two basic computerised property registers

– the land book, maintained by the local courts reporting to the sate database (Grunnbok) – the cadastre, operated by the municipalities,

reporting to the state database (GAB)

• Cadastral maps are currently in analogue form, but digitising has started

Organisational overview

• The two national databases are operated by the state. An integrated on-line service to the users is provided by a “private”


• Cadastral surveying and mapping are undertaken by the municipalities

• Currently no private licensed surveyors

• No notaries, “anybody” can write legal


64 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

Land Consolidation Court

• A special land court dealing with boundaries and land rights

• The judge must be a surveyor with a 5 year degree

Use of registers

• Cadastre: (80 % public sector)

– Municipal planning/administration/services – Tax authorities, Bureau of Statistics

– State and private developers

– Banks, insurance companies, distributors

• Land Book: (80 % private sector)

– Real estate brokers

– Banks

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 65

Property taxes

• Various property taxes:

– state tax on dwellings and secondary homes -added to the income (2,5 % of a low value) – state assets tax (very low)

– municipal tax, if decided by the municipality – state tax on land sales (2,5 % of price)

• Generally rough estimates of property values, main focus on value of buildings


• 25.000 new parcels to the cadastre per year

• 900.000 new documents to the land book per year

• 140.000 land sales per year (6% of the stock)

• 450.000 new mortgage documents

registered per year

66 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

The Cadastre

• A central database with alphanumeric information (The GAB system)

• GAB has information on parcels, buildings and addresses

• Official cadastral maps on local level only

– mainly analogue

– digital maps are under establishment

– boundaries also in the national topographic map

C adastral objects

• Property units are currently:

– freehold property – leased property

– flats in condom inium s

• N ote the difference betw een:

– physical parcel (plot)

– legal property unit (m ay have several plots)

– econom ic property unit (taxed object)

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 67

C adastral num bers, etc

• U nique national property identifier:

– 1234 - 5 - 67

• U nique national building num ber:

– 12345678(9)

• x,y co-ordinates for a reference point for all parcels, buildings and addresses

• T he C adastre show s cross-references

betw een properties, buildings and addresses

Cadastral surveying and mapping

• Flexible accuracy:

– cities 5 - 20 cm

– rural areas 1-2 meters

– optionally leased land can referred to one reference point only, without defining the boundaries exactly

• Map scales

– cities 1:1000

– rural 1: 5000 - 1:10000 (mountains 1:50.000)

68 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

T he L and B ook

• F ully com puterised

• M aintained at the local courts

• W aiting tim e for registration: 1 day

• U ses the sam e objects and identifiers as in the C adastre

• D ata guaranteed by the state. T he state pays com pensation if a person has an econom ic loss due to w rong inform ation in the register

Integrated service to users

• The Land B ook and the C adastre databases are run on the sam e m ain-fram e com puter, thus providing an integrated on-line service to users

• A “private” com pany operates the tw o databases and sells data on behalf of the state

• A nybody can subscribe to the service

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 69

Cost recovery - fees

• Fee for surveying: 1000 USD per parcel

• Fee for registration of a deed in the land book: 100 USD + 2,5 % of the land value

• Fee for registration of a mortgage: 150 USD

• The land book fees cover 3 times the costs of operating the land book

• The cadastre is almost fully financed the state

Current weaknesses

• Too low data quality in the Cadastre

• No on-line access to Cadastral maps

• No registration of public restrictions on land

• No provision for making properties in strata

• Long waiting times for surveys in some municipalities

• Large variations in prices for surveys (200-2000 USD)

• Limited service from the municipalities to clients;

focus on surveying boundaries only

70 유럽의 토지정보화 현황과 추진전략에 관한 워크샵

Pending new law on the Cadastre

• Adding a digital cadastral map to the national register

• Registering public restrictions in the Cadastre

• Adding two new types of property objects:

• volumes under or above the surface

• land in common ownership

• Introducing private licensed surveyors

The new Cadastral surveyor

• Licensed: Shall work as a neutral expert respecting general law and policies

• Consultant to land owners, developers, municipalities. Survey boundaries,

document private rights, produce data to the cadastre. Additional work in GIS, etc

• Economic liable, also after data are loaded into the Cadastre

• Academic degree + practise

Ⅲ. 노르웨이의 토지정보화 전략 71

Lessons learnt

• Successful use of private sector in establishing and operating databases

• Successful integration of Cadastre and Land Book (but one register would be better)

• Clear definitions of objects and working identifiers

• Flexible geodetic accuracy in surveying


문서에서 토지관리정보체계 (페이지 43-72)

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