The impact of unions in the aftermath of recession

문서에서 The added value of trade unions (페이지 28-53)

Although the recession had a profound impact on workers and firms through falling real wages and labour productivity, the impact of recession appears to have been similar, for the most part, in the union and non-union sectors, although the more unionised public sector did suffer greater job losses and workers in the public sector experienced greater job insecurity than those in the private sector. There were, however, two areas in which economic effects differed between the union and non-union sectors. First, private sector unionised workplaces were more likely to close between 2004 and 2011 than similar non-union workplaces. Second, there is some evidence of greater labour intensification in the union sector compared to the non-union sector.

Conclusions

Our review has summarised the current research evidence on the micro-economic impact of workplace union representation, covering a wide range of issues of interest to workers and employers. Such a review provides a useful reference point for discussions around the Trade Union Bill, which would inevitably place some additional restrictions on union activity in the UK. More broadly, however, reviews such as this also provide potentially useful reference points for employees - for whom the economic returns to union membership are a key factor in deciding whether to join (Charlwood, 2002) – and for employers who are largely free to decide whether to encourage or discourage union organisation within the UK’s largely-voluntarist system of collective employment relations.

We find that unions still deliver observable benefits to the average union member, in terms of higher wages, more extensive fringe benefits, higher levels of workplace training and the

more effective resolution of individual workplace disputes. At the same time, the negative effects on employers, once a common feature of empirical studies, have largely dissipated in recent years.

There are two important caveats to this conclusion, however. First, it is clear that union effects are heterogeneous, and that a number of the observed effects are confined to workplaces with on-site representatives or high membership density. This contributes to heterogeneity of experience across sectors and types of worker. Second, we focus on the private returns to workers and firms. Unions also have broader potential impacts on society, such as their role in promoting democracy (see, for example Bryson et al., 2014), which are not touched on here.

Private sector Whole economy

2004 2011 2004 2011

Workplace has recognised unions 13 12 22 22 Workplace union density:

Zero 81 86 73 78

1-49% 12 11 14 13

50-100% 6 3 13 10

Workplace union rep:

No recognition 87 88 78 78

Recognition without on-site rep 9 9 15 15

Recognition + on-site rep 4 3 7 7

PT/FT rep of recognised union:

No on-site rep of recognised union 96 97 93 93

Part-time rep 4 3 7 6

Full-time rep 0 0 1 1

Hours on union duties:

No on-site rep of recognised union 96 97 93 93

Hours missing 1 1 1 2

0-4 hours 2 2 4 3

5-14 hours 1 0 1 1

15+ hours 0 0 1 1

Union strength index (range 0-6):

Mean 0.38 0.25 0.72 0.57

Median 0 0 0 0

75th percentile 0 0 0 0

Number of observations (minimum) 1,660 1,801 2,203 2,522 Source: WERS Survey of Managers

Base: Workplaces with 5 or more employees

Union member 20 19 31 30 Workplace has recognised unions 32 35 48 51  

Workplace union density:

Zero 57 60 44 47

1-49% 28 27 29 30

50-100% 15 13 27 24

Workplace union rep:

No recognition 68 65 52 49

Recognition without on-site rep 8 7 11 11

Recognition + on-site rep 24 28 36 40

PT/FT rep of recognised union:

No on-site rep of recognised union 77 73 65 62

Part-time rep 18 20 25 28

Full-time rep 6 7 11 11

Hours on union duties:

No on-site rep of recognised union 76 72 64 60

Hours missing 2 5 3 7

0-4 hours 8 9 10 11

5-14 hours 6 4 9 7

15+ hours 8 11 14 15

Union strength index (range 0-6):

Mean 1.04 1.03 1.65 1.58

Median 0 0 0 0

75th percentile 2 2 3 3

 

Number of observations (minimum) 14,803 13,094 21,491 20,481 Source: WERS Survey of Employees

Base: Employees in workplaces with 5 or more employees

Workplace has recognised unions

Yes 1,097 1,272 1,133 1,313

No 545 538 1,093 1,308

Workplace union density:

Zero 948 1,158 968 1,183

1-49% 459 447 643 724

50-100% 253 200 592 626

Workplace union rep:

No recognition 1,097 1,272 1,133 1,313

Recognition without on-site rep 163 149 324 358

Recognition + on-site rep 382 389 769 950

PT/FT rep of recognised union:

No on-site rep of recognised union 1,324 1,471 1,527 1,732

Part-time rep 304 299 563 690

Full-time rep 77 84 203 245

Hours on union duties:

No on-site rep of recognised union 1,260 1,421 1,457 1,671

Hours missing 84 117 140 271

0-4 hours 112 102 211 236

5-14 hours 84 75 163 171

15+ hours 102 95 255 272

Union strength index (range 0-6):

Index observed 1,660 1,801 2,203 2,522

 

Source: WERS Survey of Managers

Base: Workplaces with 5 or more employees

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Table 4.1: Log of Gross hourly pay (employee level)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Union member?          Yes 0.138*** 0.073** 0.053*** 0.038** 0.193*** 0.107*** 0.081*** 0.065***  Any recognised unions?          Yes 0.120*** 0.128*** 0.026 0.049** 0.159*** 0.137*** 0.023 0.051***  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 0.017 0.024 ‐0.025 0.006 0.067** 0.080** ‐0.020 0.007  50‐100% 0.196*** 0.160*** 0.066*** 0.086*** 0.192*** 0.105*** 0.043** 0.057**  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 0.045 0.094 0.010 0.049* 0.099*** 0.071 0.018 0.052**  Recognition + on‐site rep 0.144*** 0.136*** 0.034* 0.049** 0.177*** 0.155*** 0.026 0.050**  Union strength:          Index (range 0‐6) 0.043*** 0.032*** 0.016*** 0.021*** 0.045*** 0.027*** 0.013*** 0.018***  Number of observations 14277 12098 14259 12064 20690 18843 20658 18773  Source: WERS Survey of Employees Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: Employee level: gender, age, marital status, any dependent children, disability, white ethnicity, highest academic qu highest vocational qualification, occupation, hours, tenure, contract type. Workplace-level: workplace employment; single/mul organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, workplace age, region, largest occupational group (p sector dummy for whole economy models).

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2: Satisfaction with pay – 5 point scale (employee level) Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   member?           ‐0.182*** ‐0.024 ‐0.042 0.041 ‐0.173*** ‐0.071** ‐0.072*** ‐0.001   recognised unions?           ‐0.150*** 0.006 0.016 0.061 ‐0.169*** ‐0.031 ‐0.023 0.087*   density (ref: Zero):          % ‐0.151*** ‐0.110** ‐0.042 ‐0.006 ‐0.127*** ‐0.064 ‐0.025 0.037  ‐100% ‐0.128*** 0.103* 0.108** 0.233*** ‐0.187*** ‐0.035 ‐0.009 0.131**  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep ‐0.150** ‐0.041 ‐0.020 0.024 ‐0.138*** ‐0.015 ‐0.040 0.106**   + on‐site rep ‐0.150*** 0.017 0.035 0.078 ‐0.178*** ‐0.035 ‐0.014 0.077   strength:           (range 0‐6) ‐0.034*** 0.018 0.026** 0.060*** ‐0.041*** ‐0.003 0.006 0.041***  er of observations  14591   12940   14572   12906   21197   20223   21163   20151   ERS Survey of Employees  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  trols: Employee level: gender, age, marital status, any dependent children, disability, white ethnicity, highest academic qu vocational qualification, occupation, hours, tenure, contract type. Workplace-level: workplace employment; single/mul n; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, workplace age, region, largest occupational group (p my for whole economy models).

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Table 4.3: Any pension contributions received from employer (employee level)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Union member?          Yes  0.157***  0.053***  0.174***  0.049***  Any recognised unions?          Yes  0.200***  0.057***  0.220***  0.070***  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49%  0.104***  0.032*  0.154***  0.054***  50‐100%  0.256***  0.123***  0.243***  0.110***  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 0.06 ‐0.013 0.121*** 0.037*  Recognition + on‐site rep 0.234*** 0.089*** 0.247*** 0.088***  Union strength:          Index (range 0‐6)  0.057***  0.027***  0.057***  0.025***  Number of observations    12587     12553     19729     19657   Source: WERS Survey of Employees Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: Employee level: gender, age, marital status, any dependent children, disability, white ethnicity, highest academic qu highest vocational qualification, occupation, hours, tenure, contract type. Workplace-level: workplace employment; singl organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, workplace age, region, largest occupational group (p sector dummy for whole economy models).

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le 4.4: Any off-the-job training in past 12 months (employee level) Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   member?           0.038** 0.028* 0.039** 0.027* 0.107*** 0.055*** 0.048*** 0.037***   recognised unions?           0.060*** 0.061*** 0.024 0.039** 0.126*** 0.086*** 0.031* 0.050***   density (ref: Zero):          % 0.049** 0.032 0.003 ‐0.002 0.095*** 0.060*** 0.021 0.007  ‐100% 0.074*** 0.063*** 0.056** 0.073*** 0.140*** 0.075*** 0.052** 0.057***  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep 0.102*** 0.055 0.042* 0.005 0.155*** 0.081*** 0.047** 0.034   + on‐site rep 0.046** 0.062*** 0.015 0.054** 0.117*** 0.087*** 0.023 0.058***   strength:           (range 0‐6) 0.015*** 0.013*** 0.009* 0.016*** 0.030*** 0.017*** 0.009** 0.016***  er of observations  14671   12962   14652   12928   21330   20299   21296   20226   ERS Survey of Employees  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  trols: Employee level: gender, age, marital status, any dependent children, disability, white ethnicity, highest academic qu vocational qualification, occupation, hours, tenure, contract type. Workplace-level: workplace employment; singl n; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, workplace age, region, largest occupational group (p my for whole economy models).

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Table 4.5: Five or more days of off-the-job training in past 12 months (employee level)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Union member?          Yes 0.018* 0.007 0.009 0.008 0.053*** 0.017** 0.023*** 0.017**  Any recognised unions?          Yes 0.027*** 0.035*** 0.009 0.021 0.054*** 0.032*** 0.013 0.025*  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 0.008 0.033** ‐0.015 0.024 0.033*** 0.028** 0.001 0.021  50‐100% 0.029** 0.041*** 0.002 0.052*** 0.058*** 0.041*** 0.012 0.049***  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 0.048** 0.055 0.030 0.032 0.071*** 0.042** 0.032** 0.034*  Recognition + on‐site rep 0.021* 0.030** ‐0.002 0.016 0.049*** 0.030*** 0.003 0.020  Union strength:          Index (range 0‐6) 0.006** 0.008** 0.000 0.010*** 0.013*** 0.008*** 0.002 0.010***  Number of observations  14671   12962   14652   12928   21330   20299   21296   20226   Source: WERS Survey of Employees Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: Employee level: gender, age, marital status, any dependent children, disability, white ethnicity, highest academic qu highest vocational qualification, occupation, hours, tenure, contract type. Workplace-level: workplace employment; singl organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, workplace age, region, largest occupational group (p sector dummy for whole economy models).

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6: Satisfaction with training – five point scale (employee level) Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   member?           ‐0.149*** ‐0.047 ‐0.054 0.020 ‐0.114*** ‐0.085*** ‐0.064** ‐0.011   recognised unions?           ‐0.164*** ‐0.077** ‐0.037 ‐0.025 ‐0.109*** ‐0.088*** ‐0.038 ‐0.021   density (ref: Zero):          % ‐0.111*** ‐0.033 ‐0.036 ‐0.020 ‐0.062* ‐0.036 ‐0.008 ‐0.003  ‐100% ‐0.179*** ‐0.091* ‐0.014 0.062 ‐0.134*** ‐0.115*** ‐0.037 0.002  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep 0.041 0.024 0.054 ‐0.008 0.022 0.037 0.011 0.020   + on‐site rep ‐0.227*** ‐0.101** ‐0.083* ‐0.034 ‐0.149*** ‐0.122*** ‐0.066 ‐0.043   strength:           (range 0‐6) ‐0.052*** ‐0.023** ‐0.013 0.010 ‐0.035*** ‐0.029*** ‐0.016 ‐0.002  er of observations  14467   12865   14448  12831   21052   20118   21018   20046   ERS Survey of Employees  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  trols: Employee level: gender, age, marital status, any dependent children, disability, white ethnicity, highest academic qu vocational qualification, occupation, hours, tenure, contract type. Workplace-level: workplace employment; singl n; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, workplace age, region, largest occupational group (p my for whole economy models).

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Table 5.1: Labour Productivity – Subjective Rating Scale (1-4)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes ‐0.346 ‐0.017 ‐0.237 ‐0.13 0.156 0.246 ‐0.133 0.011  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% ‐0.062 0.188 0.115 ‐0.026 0.052 0.292 0.056 0.063  50‐100% 0.250 ‐0.063 0.451 ‐0.042 0.429* 0.199 0.242 ‐0.107  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep ‐0.245 ‐0.104 ‐0.140 ‐0.284 0.189 0.209 ‐0.130 ‐0.031  Recognition + on‐site rep ‐0.574*** 0.227 ‐0.452* 0.365 0.091 0.325* ‐0.140 0.153  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) ‐0.011 ‐0.003 0.042 ‐0.001 0.068 0.058 0.006 ‐0.006  Number of observations  1660   1801   1659   1798   2203   2522   2200   2512   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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5.2: Product/Service Quality – Subjective Rating Scale (1-4) Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           ‐0.362*** ‐0.074 ‐0.315** 0.007 ‐0.113 0.110 ‐0.195 0.072   density (ref: Zero):          % 0.149 0.037 0.295* 0.076 0.062 0.105 0.160 0.124  ‐100% 0.235 0.110 0.516 0.143 0.127 0.195 0.267 0.080  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep ‐0.400*** ‐0.147 ‐0.371** ‐0.067 ‐0.134 0.089 ‐0.214 0.069   + on‐site rep ‐0.277** 0.128 ‐0.191 0.243 ‐0.072 0.155 ‐0.150 0.084   strength:   (range 0‐6) ‐0.011 0.029 0.047 0.059 ‐0.008 0.051 ‐0.012 0.04  er of observations  1660   1801   1659   1798   2203   2522   2200   2512   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.3: Financial Performance – Subjective Rating Scale (1-4)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes ‐0.422** 0.246 ‐0.510** 0.039 0.027 0.456*** ‐0.306 0.103  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% ‐0.045 0.074 ‐0.063 ‐0.260* ‐0.027 0.268 ‐0.171 ‐0.102  50‐100% 0.039 0.164 0.060 0.009 0.278 0.387** 0.054 ‐0.148  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep ‐0.406* 0.195 ‐0.456* ‐0.035 ‐0.028 0.427* ‐0.347 0.075  Recognition + on‐site rep ‐0.458** 0.389* ‐0.630*** 0.274 0.136 0.516*** ‐0.206 0.197  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) ‐0.042 0.068 ‐0.044 0.025 0.04 0.109*** ‐0.017 ‐0.006  Number of observations  1660   1801   1659   1798   2203   2522   2200   2512   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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5.4: Workplace Performance – Additive Scale (0-9) Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           ‐0.458*** ‐0.066 ‐0.318 0.073 ‐0.530*** ‐0.149 ‐0.392** 0.158   density (ref: Zero):          % ‐0.048 ‐0.053 0.029 0.037 ‐0.132 0.016 ‐0.095 0.178  ‐100% ‐0.325 0.244 ‐0.299 0.199 ‐0.525*** ‐0.26 ‐0.332 ‐0.101  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep ‐0.344* ‐0.08 ‐0.189 0.121 ‐0.531*** ‐0.119 ‐0.426** 0.214   + on‐site rep ‐0.711*** ‐0.025 ‐0.592** ‐0.095 ‐0.528*** ‐0.217 ‐0.309 ‐0.053   strength:   (range 0‐6) ‐0.110** 0.027 ‐0.101 0.05 ‐0.132*** ‐0.062* ‐0.082 ‐0.007  er of observations  1434   1623   1433   1620   1849   2221   1846   2213   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.5: Number of Innovations Made in Past Two Years – Count Variable (0-7 excluding computers)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes 0.846*** 0.560*** ‐0.013 0.369* 0.772*** 0.409*** ‐0.171 0.263  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 0.353* 0.501** ‐0.378** 0.222 0.420** 0.485*** ‐0.419** 0.28  50‐100% 0.664** 0.747*** ‐0.335 0.268 0.715*** 0.513*** ‐0.537** 0.295  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 0.805*** 0.397 0.012 0.38 0.596*** 0.193 ‐0.197 0.223  Recognition + on‐site rep 0.941*** 1.022*** ‐0.069 0.334 1.123*** 0.871*** ‐0.108 0.400*  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) 0.214*** 0.211*** ‐0.033 0.091 0.213*** 0.135*** ‐0.053 0.073  Number of observations  1653   1788   1652   1785   2189   2500   2186   2490   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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6: Any Product or Service Innovation in Past Two Years Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           0.155*** 0.145** ‐0.018 0.114* 0.071** 0.059 ‐0.062 0.087   density (ref: Zero):          % 0.019 0.107 ‐0.065 0.054 0.015 0.072 ‐0.068 0.051  ‐100% 0.198*** 0.061 0.015 ‐0.021 0.086** 0.037 ‐0.045 0.034  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          gnition without on‐site rep 0.152** 0.154* ‐0.031 0.144* 0.047 0.05 ‐0.08 0.099  gnition + on‐site rep 0.161** 0.118** 0.012 0.019 0.118*** 0.077** ‐0.019 0.047   strength:   (range 0‐6) 0.047*** 0.029* 0.001 0.008 0.023** 0.011 ‐0.006 0.009  er of observations  1653   1788   1652   1785   2189   2500   2186   2490   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.7: Any New Technology Introduced in Past Two Years   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes 0.107** 0.076 ‐0.065 0.051 0.085** 0.019 ‐0.088 0.019  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 0.076 0.164*** ‐0.058 0.111* 0.067 0.126** ‐0.075 0.104*  50‐100% 0.041 0.146* ‐0.148** 0.098 0.075* 0.06 ‐0.134** 0.092  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 0.093 0.07 ‐0.051 0.071 0.054 0.001 ‐0.085 0.03  Recognition + on‐site rep 0.141** 0.092 ‐0.098 ‐0.015 0.148*** 0.056 ‐0.097 ‐0.017  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) 0.024 0.035** ‐0.029* 0.02 0.025** 0.011 ‐0.025 0.009  Number of observations  1660   1801   1659   1798   2203   2522   2200   2512   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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8: Number of Fringe Benefits Available to Largest Occupational Group – Count Variable (0-5) Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           1.410*** 1.116*** 0.484*** 0.588*** 1.265*** 1.189*** 0.447*** 0.546***   density (ref: Zero):          % 0.708*** 0.839*** 0.159 0.399** 0.710*** 0.877*** 0.124 0.420***  ‐100% 1.344*** 1.360*** 0.284** 0.751*** 1.265*** 1.310*** 0.294** 0.598***  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          gnition without on‐site rep 1.393*** 0.959*** 0.477*** 0.526*** 1.241*** 1.076*** 0.473*** 0.539***  gnition + on‐site rep 1.449*** 1.557*** 0.501*** 0.785*** 1.313*** 1.429*** 0.385*** 0.572***   strength:   (range 0‐6) 0.383*** 0.391*** 0.117*** 0.208*** 0.325*** 0.337*** 0.096*** 0.146***  er of observations  1657   1799   1657   1796   2199   2517   2198   2507   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.9: Percentage of Largest Occupational Group Receiving Off-The-Job Training in Past 12 Months – Seven-Point Ordered Scale   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes 1.751*** 0.981*** 0.566** 0.287 1.747*** 1.097*** 0.440** 0.207  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 1.054*** 1.431*** 0.102 0.694*** 1.165*** 1.495*** 0.067 0.800***  50‐100% 1.592*** 1.742*** 0.263 0.827*** 1.779*** 1.478*** 0.211 0.755***  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 1.895*** 0.789** 0.633** 0.178 1.739*** 0.936*** 0.451* 0.147  Recognition + on‐site rep 1.417*** 1.492*** 0.415 0.631** 1.764*** 1.424*** 0.411* 0.408  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) 0.465*** 0.438*** 0.149** 0.167** 0.457*** 0.351*** 0.100* 0.122*  Number of observations  1640   1785   1640   1783   2164   2492   2163   2483   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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le 5.10: Number of Days of Off-The-Job Training Received by Largest Occupational Group – Six-Point Ordered Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           0.792*** 0.549*** 0.113 0.214 0.892*** 0.621*** 0.013 0.156   density (ref: Zero):          % 0.545*** 0.708*** ‐0.083 0.332* 0.649*** 0.701*** ‐0.071 0.299*  ‐100% 0.738*** 0.727*** ‐0.091 0.182 0.936*** 0.743*** ‐0.092 0.226  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep 0.814*** 0.512** 0.087 0.202 0.850*** 0.540*** ‐0.011 0.127   + on‐site rep 0.740*** 0.647*** 0.17 0.254 0.974*** 0.784*** 0.07 0.252   strength:   (range 0‐6) 0.213*** 0.195*** 0.019 0.046 0.241*** 0.182*** 0.006 0.044  er of observations  1612   1750   1612   1747   2114   2420   2113   2412   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.11: Log of absence rate   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes 0.016** 0.010 0.003 0.008 0.020*** 0.012** 0.005 0.007  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 0.014* 0.011* 0.004 0.008 0.009 0.010* ‐0.002 0.006  50‐100% 0.004 0.011 ‐0.015 0.008 0.021*** 0.015** 0.000 0.011  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 0.016 0.007 0.000 0.008 0.018** 0.008 0.002 0.007  Recognition + on‐site rep 0.018** 0.016** 0.009 0.007 0.025*** 0.018*** 0.012 0.008  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) 0.004* 0.005 ‐0.001 0.004 0.006*** 0.004** 0.002 0.004  Number of observations  1384   1553   1383   1551   1820   2149   1817   2142   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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12: Injury Rate per 100 Employees in Last 12 Months Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           0.561 ‐0.269 0.735 ‐0.174 0.276 ‐0.263* 0.544 ‐0.192   density (ref: Zero):          % 0.678 ‐0.101 0.623 ‐0.033 0.462 ‐0.061 0.394 0.032  ‐100% ‐0.089 0.229 0.118 0.255 0.022 ‐0.079 0.218 0.006  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          gnition without on‐site rep 0.85 ‐0.307 1.144 ‐0.228 0.377 ‐0.316* 0.720 ‐0.223  gnition + on‐site rep ‐0.094 ‐0.163 ‐0.176 0.001 0.076 ‐0.152 0.121 ‐0.089   strength:   (range 0‐6) 0.062 ‐0.020 0.102 0.014 0.027 ‐0.042 0.080 ‐0.036  er of observations  1660   1801   1659   1798   2203   2522   2200   2512   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.13: Illness Rate per 100 Employees in Last 12 Months   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes 2.834* 1.27 1.923 1.481 2.858*** 1.663** 1.852* 1.090  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% 3.488** 0.573 2.948** ‐0.274 3.220** 0.637 2.385* 0.029  50‐100% 1.576 ‐0.177 ‐0.201 ‐0.696 2.438*** 2.123** 0.726 0.649  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep 3.47 1.805 2.423 1.889 3.281** 1.669* 2.099* 1.082  Recognition + on‐site rep 1.392 ‐0.229 0.807 0.172 2.015** 1.651** 1.259 1.115  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) 0.612* 0.161 0.090 0.096 0.700*** 0.554*** 0.224 0.316  Number of observations  1660   1801   1659   1798   2203   2522   2200   2512   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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14: Voluntary Quits per 100 Employees Private sector Whole economy  Raw Controls Raw Controls  2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011   recognised unions?           ‐4.958** ‐2.827** ‐7.821*** ‐3.580** ‐7.840*** ‐4.685*** ‐7.088*** ‐2.903*   density (ref: Zero):          % ‐3.066 2.076 ‐3.465* 2.621 ‐4.468*** ‐0.143 ‐3.928** 1.865  ‐100% ‐8.880*** ‐3.807 ‐10.022*** ‐2.869 ‐10.999*** ‐6.069*** ‐9.017*** ‐1.053  ‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):           without on‐site rep ‐3.374 ‐1.82 ‐6.429** ‐2.637 ‐7.053*** ‐3.789*** ‐6.554*** ‐2.518   + on‐site rep ‐8.670*** ‐5.763*** ‐10.987*** ‐6.668*** ‐9.472*** ‐6.617*** ‐8.403*** ‐4.228***   strength:   (range 0‐6) ‐2.099*** ‐1.235*** ‐2.822*** ‐1.357*** ‐2.555*** ‐1.616*** ‐2.348*** ‐0.927**  er of observations  1558   1705   1557   1702   2047   2361   2044   2353   ERS Survey of Managers  statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  s: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, private sector dummy for whole economy models).

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Table 5.15: Climate of Employment Relations – Subjective Rating Scale (0-4)   Private sector Whole economy   Raw Controls Raw Controls    2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011  Any recognised unions?          Yes ‐0.126* ‐0.091 ‐0.069 0.051 ‐0.139*** ‐0.119*** ‐0.099 0.062  Union density (ref: Zero):          1‐49% ‐0.163** ‐0.141** ‐0.048 ‐0.016 ‐0.121* ‐0.141** ‐0.037 ‐0.016  50‐100% ‐0.019 ‐0.199** 0.020 ‐0.068 ‐0.109* ‐0.164*** ‐0.056 ‐0.029  On‐site rep (Ref. No recognition):          Recognition without on‐site rep ‐0.010 ‐0.01 ‐0.008 0.088 ‐0.095 ‐0.05 ‐0.096 0.082  Recognition + on‐site rep ‐0.391*** ‐0.317*** ‐0.205 ‐0.07 ‐0.227*** ‐0.263*** ‐0.105 ‐0.009  Union strength:  Index (range 0‐6) ‐0.026 ‐0.041** ‐0.010 0.006 ‐0.028** ‐0.041*** ‐0.007 0.004  Number of observations  1652   1800   1651   1797   2188   2517   2185   2507   Source: WERS Survey of Managers Key to statistical significance: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1  Controls: workplace employment; single/multi-site organisation; organisation employment; foreign-ownership, industry sector, age, region, largest occupational group (plus private sector dummy for whole economy models).

문서에서 The added value of trade unions (페이지 28-53)