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Females Survivor Period Life Expectancy at Age 65 (1990-2013)

12 14 16 18 20 22

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Year Survivors

Population

18 20 22 24

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Year Survivors

Population

V. CPP Disability Beneficiary Mortality

A. Introduction

This section presents the methodology and overall results of the study on the mortality of CPP disability beneficiaries. This section only covers the aggregate mortality experience of disability beneficiaries and does not cover mortality by duration of disability. A more detailed analysis of disability mortality by duration and cause was discussed in the OCA’s Actuarial Study No. 9 (published in 2011) and an update to that more detailed analysis will be provided in a future study.

B. Disability Benefit Eligibility

A person is considered disabled if he or she is determined to be suffering from a severe and

prolonged mental or physical disability. A disability is considered severe if by reason of it the person is regularly incapable of pursuing any substantially gainful occupation; a disability is considered prolonged if it is likely to be long-term and of indefinite duration or is likely to result in death.

A person who becomes disabled prior to age 65 and is not receiving a CPP retirement pension is eligible for a disability benefit provided that contributions have been made, at the time of

disablement, for at least four of the previous six calendar years, counting years included either wholly or partly in the contributory period. Since 2008, contributors with 25 or more years of contributions to the Plan can meet the eligibility requirement with contributions in three of the last six years.

Contributions must be on earnings that are not less than 10% of the YMPE rounded, if necessary, to the next lower multiple of $100.

C. Amount of Disability Pension

The amount of monthly benefit payable is the sum of a flat-rate portion ($465.84 in 2015) depending only on the year in which the benefit is payable and an earnings-related portion equal, when it commences, to 75% of the retirement pension under the Plan that would be payable at the onset of disability if the contributory period ended on that date and no actuarial adjustment applied. The automatic conversion of a disability benefit to a retirement pension at age 65 is based on the pensionable earnings at the time of disablement, price-indexed to age 65. In other words, the indexing from the time of disablement to age 65, which determines the initial rate of the retirement pension, is in line with increases in prices rather than wages. In the case that both a disability and survivor benefit are payable, the monthly amount of the disability benefit is reduced. The maximum monthly disability benefit in 2015 is $1,264.59.

D. Disability Mortality Experience for Year 2011 1. Beneficiaries

Historical data on the number of disability beneficiaries by age group and sex are presented in Table 34. The number of male beneficiaries has increased by 8% from about 156,000 in 1991 to 169,000 in 2011. Over the same period, the number of female beneficiaries almost doubled, increasing by 92%

from about 99,000 in 1991 to 190,000 in 2011. The steeper increase in the number of female disability beneficiaries can be attributed to the increased labour force participation of females (and hence CPP benefit eligibility). In 2011, there were 359,000 disability beneficiaries in total (53%

female) and the proportion of beneficiaries who were aged 50 and over was about 75% for both males and females. From 1991 to 2011 the average age of disability beneficiaries remained relatively stable for males at about 54 between 1991 and 2011 and slightly increased for females from 53.0 in 1991 to 54.1 in 2011. The number of beneficiaries for the year 2011 by individual age and sex is

Table 34 Disability Beneficiaries (1st July)

Males Age Group

Number Distribution

1991 2001 2011 1991 2001 2011

< 30 2,074 1,079 1,338 1% 1% 1%

30-34 4,390 3,112 2,719 3% 2% 2%

35-39 7,018 7,982 5,274 4% 5% 3%

40-44 10,668 13,769 10,168 7% 9% 6%

45-49 14,025 19,448 20,378 9% 12% 12%

50-54 21,639 28,332 31,130 14% 18% 18%

55-59 38,815 36,970 44,212 25% 23% 26%

60-64 57,532 46,952 53,685 37% 30% 32%

Total 156,161 157,644 168,904 100% 100% 100%

Average Age 54.4 53.5 54.4

Females Age Group

Number Distribution

1991 2001 2011 1991 2001 2011

< 30 1,428 797 1,046 1% 1% 1%

30-34 3,296 3,111 3,048 3% 2% 2%

35-39 5,819 8,784 6,358 6% 6% 3%

40-44 8,439 14,790 12,503 9% 10% 7%

45-49 10,794 21,450 24,530 11% 14% 13%

50-54 15,687 29,445 37,009 16% 20% 19%

55-59 24,122 33,847 49,445 24% 23% 26%

60-64 29,528 37,589 55,950 30% 25% 29%

Total 99,113 149,813 189,889 100% 100% 100%

Average Age 53.0 52.6 54.1

2. Deaths

Table 35 presents the number of disability deaths by age group and sex. Of the 9,700 observed deaths in 2011, 58% were males. Disability beneficiary deaths by individual ages for years 1991, 2001 and 2011 are presented in Table 60 of the Annex. Over the period 1990 to 2011 there were 206,000 observed deaths in total (64% from males). The median age at death of disabled males remained at about 57 in both 1991 and 2011, while for females it increased from 54 to 56 over the same period.

Although there was an increase in total male exposures (see Table 36) between 1991 and 2011, there was a decrease in the total number of male deaths over the same period (from 6,437 in 1991 to 5,590 in 2011). As will be discussed further (see Section E) this counterintuitive result can be linked to the relative prevalence of deaths due to neoplasms and how mortality rates due to neoplasms have decreased over that period.

For females, the increase in the number of deaths (from 2,552 to 4,106) is mainly linked to the

historical increase in eligibility of females to the CPP disability benefit, resulting from their increased labour force participation. This increase due to eligibility more than offsets the impact of lower neoplasms related mortality for females.

Table 35 Disability Deaths (1990-2011)

Males Age Group

Number Distribution

1990-2011 1991 2001 2011 1991 2001 2011

< 30 1,149 92 36 33 1% 1% 1%

30-34 2,482 192 71 44 3% 1% 1%

35-39 4,388 251 152 94 4% 3% 2%

40-44 7,325 384 325 205 6% 6% 4%

45-49 12,589 548 552 486 9% 11% 9%

50-54 21,123 837 931 969 13% 18% 17%

55-59 34,222 1,617 1,374 1,579 25% 26% 28%

60-64 47,634 2,516 1,809 2,180 39% 34% 39%

Total 130,912 6,437 5,250 5,590 100% 100% 100%

Median Age 56.7 57.2 56.3 57.3

Females Age Group

Number Distribution

1990-2011 1991 2001 2011 1991 2001 2011

< 30 635 34 24 21 1% 1% 1%

30-34 1,408 78 58 44 3% 2% 1%

35-39 3,087 158 147 89 6% 4% 2%

40-44 5,952 262 284 206 10% 9% 5%

45-49 9,797 309 447 467 12% 14% 11%

50-54 14,389 401 691 854 16% 21% 21%

55-59 19,032 606 781 1,156 24% 24% 28%

60-64 20,604 704 852 1,269 28% 26% 31%

Total 74,904 2,552 3,284 4,106 100% 100% 100%

Median Age 54.6 54.3 53.9 55.8

Chart 29 shows the change in the distribution of deaths by age and sex between 1991 and 2011. It illustrates that the median age at death for males has remained relatively stable while it has increased for females over the period. In 2011, the number of disability deaths peaked at age 64 for males and age 62 for females.