Cost of Project-Based Transitional Housing

문서에서 Family Options Study (페이지 177-180)

Chapter 12. Intervention Costs

12.4 Cost of Project-Based Transitional Housing

PBTH programs have per-family monthly program costs of

$2,706, second to emergency shelter and more than double the monthly costs per family of CBRR and SUB. Among families who used their assigned PBTH programs, program costs per stay during the followup period averaged slightly more than $32,500, the highest of any active intervention.

Average monthly housing or shelter costs for PBTH are higher than costs for CBRR and SUB, but the bulk of the cost differ-ential is driven by the greater supportive services that PBTH programs provide. As reported with other cost summary statistics in Exhibit 12-12, supportive services represent, on average, 42 percent of PBTH costs.

The supportive services costs included here are for services provided directly by the program or its partners or volunteers to resident families because they were in the PBTH program.

Mainstream services that SUB, CBRR, or PBTH families re-ceived outside of the programs to which they were assigned are not included here. It is possible that PBTH services sub - stituted for some of the mainstream services that were used by CBRR or SUB families, but which were not included in the costs we attribute to those programs. Mainstream services are those provided to families because they are available in

Exhibit 12-12. Program-Level Cost Summary Statistics for 24 PBTH Programs

Average Across

Programs Range Across Programs

PBTH per-family monthly program cost ($) 2,706 1,261 to 6,292

PBTH program cost per stay during the followup period ($) 32,557 16,066 to 60,002

Duration in PBTH during the followup perioda (months) 12.8 8.4 to 17.1 (across sites)

Housing share (%) 58 21 to 84

Supportive services share (%) 42 79 to 16

Partner and in-kind share (included in housing or shelter or supportive services cost as relevant) (%) 8 0 to 44 Administrative and overhead cost share (included in both housing and supportive services costs) (%) 14 3 to 39 PBTH = project-based transitional housing.

a Duration in PBTH programs in the first 18 months after random assignment calculated for study families who were assigned to and enrolled in PBTH.

Notes: Averages are weighted based on the number of study families enrolled in each PBTH program calculated from study enrollment data. Housing and supportive service shares add to 100; partner and in-kind share and administrative share are included in housing and supportive services.

Sources: Family Options Study cost data; Program Usage Data

145 HPRP was authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Across the nation, communities received $1.5 billion in HPRP funding, a one-time funding stream available for 3 years from program inception, to provide both homelessness prevention and rapid re-housing assistance to individuals and families facing homelessness.

146 Based on program usage data, only 10 percent of CBRR-assigned families who received CBRR assistance were still receiving this assistance as of the followup survey. This proportion compares with 89 percent for SUB and 40 percent for PBTH. In Chapters 5 through 9, duration is reported by contrast for the time before the followup survey.

Short-Term Impacts of Housing and Services Interventions for Homeless Families 146 Chapter 12. Intervention Costs

the community and because the families are eligible, but not because they are participating in a particular housing or shelter program. It also is possible, however, that the intensive case management that is part of the higher PBTH supportive services costs led to more referrals that increased PBTH residents’ use of mainstream services compared with use of those services by SUB or CBRR families.

Exhibit 12-13 shows how per-family monthly program cost varies across the PBTH programs. Most of the variation in total costs results from variation in the extent of supportive services provided, which range from 16 to 77 percent of total costs. Supportive services include some level of case management for all PBTH programs. In cost data collection, the study team identified a broad and varied array of addi-tional supportive services that PBTH programs and their partners provided. Examples include onsite mental health and substance abuse therapy; childcare, tutoring, and men-toring; clothing, toiletries, and food; and holiday gifts and event tickets.

Although variation exists across programs in the cost of the housing portion of PBTH, no clear relationship is apparent between local FMR and either total PBTH costs or the housing/

shelter portion of costs. Instead, variation in housing or shelter costs appears to arise from differences in the actual space provided to families in PBTH programs and staffing and maintenance costs associated with program facilities.

Most programs house families on a dedicated campus with varying mixes of full-time maintenance, front desk, and security staff. Some of these facilities are located in relatively high-cost neighborhoods, while others are located in areas with lower rental rates. A few programs rent housing units that are geographically dispersed within the local communi-ty, often referred to as scattered-site units.

As depicted in Exhibit 12-14, the share of administrative costs and of partner and in-kind services vary substantially across programs and has a positive correlation with per-family monthly program costs for PBTH. A positive relationship is also observed between supportive services share and both

Exhibit 12-13. Per-Family Monthly Program Costs for PBTH Programs

PBTH = project-based transitional housing.

Note: Site names are suppressed to preserve program anonymity.

Source: Family Options Study cost data

Supportive services costs Housing costs

$0 $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 $4,000

Per-family monthly program cost

$5,000 $6,000 $7,000

24 PBTH programs in cost analysis

Exhibit 12-14. Administrative (panel A) and Partner/In Kind (panel B) Share of Program Costs

Note: The fitted line has been added to this scatter plot to make the positive correlations obvious.

Source: Family Options Study cost data

$7,000

$6,000

$5,000

$4,000

$3,000

$2,000

$1,000

$0

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

Administrative share of costs Panel A

Panel B

Per-family monthly program cost

$7,000

$6,000

$5,000

$4,000

$3,000

$2,000

$1,000

$0

Per-family monthly program cost

30% 35% 40% 45%

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

Partner/in kind share of costs

30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Short-Term Impacts of Housing and Services Interventions for Homeless Families 148 Chapter 12. Intervention Costs

partner and in-kind share and administrative cost share. So, in general, programs with more supportive services require greater administrative overhead, perhaps because they more often leverage partner organizations and donations to provide increased supportive services. Looking at the underlying data, no clear association is apparent between the number of families served at a time by the program and average cost per household, administrative cost share, or in-kind share.

This finding suggests that cost variation for PBTH programs is largely driven by the type and amount of housing and supportive services provided rather than by the number of households served.

PBTH programs provide time-limited assistance. The limits are typically longer than in CBRR programs and shorter than the period of time families typically continue to qualify for and use vouchers. Duration of assistance within the followup period after random assignment averaged 12 months for fam - ilies who were assigned to and used PBTH, nearly 4 months less than the average duration for families in SUB during the same period. Many PBTH programs enroll families for longer than 18 months and, indeed, 40 percent of study families who used PBTH were still enrolled in the programs as of the followup survey. Because monthly per-family costs of PBTH are more than double monthly per-family costs for SUB, the average program cost per stay during the followup period for PBTH of more than $32,500 is substantially more than that of SUB during the same period.

문서에서 Family Options Study (페이지 177-180)