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B Insecticides are generally not effective in controlling Beet curly top

문서에서 KALE PRODUCTION MANUAL (페이지 25-50)

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Common Insect Pests Thrips (mainly Thrips palmi and Frankliniella spp)

Thrips attack kale mostly during the dry season. They cause browning of leaves, especially on the lower leaf surface.

Management

Bio-rational Pesticides: Azadirachtins and neem products are derived from the neem tree (Azadirachtica indica). These products can be composed of either neem oil or the active ingredient in neem oil (Azadirachtins). Neem-based products have insecticidal and repellent properties.

Spinosad has compounds derived from a bacteria called Saccropolysporospinosa. They provide good suppression of thrips populations.

Garlic oil is available in concentrated formulations. It repels aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, and other insects, and has some insecticidal activity.

IGRs (insect growth regulators) are synthetic pesticides that prevent immature insects from becoming adults.

Leafhopper (Hishimonus phycitis)

These feed mainly on the underside of leaves. The infested leaves curl upwards along the margin.

Their feeding results in small yellow patches on the foliage. Certain species also transmit mycoplasma-like diseases, such as little leaf disease.

Management

Remove garden debris and waste immediately upon harvesting.

Row covers and shade can be used as physical barriers to limit leafhopper access to plants.

General Predators like Green Lacewing, Ladybugs and Assassin Bugs will consume all stages of leafhoppers but are less effective in controlling adults.

Diatomaceous Earth can be applied to leaf and fruit surfaces to deter leafhopper damage.

Use fast-acting insecticides like Pyrethrins or Azadirachtins Grow Okra as a trap crop along the borders of a kale field.

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Avoid the use of board spectrum pesticides to encourage the performance of natural enemies. use systemic pesticides

Aphids (Aphis gossypii)

Aphids are small, soft, and yellowish green or greenish brown in color. They are found in colonies on the tender shoots and the under surface of young leaves. They feed on leaves and stems by sucking the plant juice. Black sooty mold develops on the sugary excretions of the aphid, covering the plants and reducing photosynthesis. As a result, infested plants weaken. These insects occur in the cool dry season.

Management

Spray neem products. They have a repellent effect and have been effective in reducing numbers of the aphid on kales.

Effective treatments included foliar sprays with aqueous extracts of neem seeds, kernel and neem cake at concentrations of 10 to 50 g/l, and 3% neem oil applied at 10 days intervals.

Grow kale seedlings in insect-proof (50–64 mesh) net houses, net tunnels, greenhouses, or plastic houses to avoid early infestation.

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

Kale is highly susceptible to this nematode, especially on sandy soils. Infested plants become stunted, and their leaves show yellowing. Look for the characteristic root galls

Management

Crop rotation with paddy rice or resistant crops will reduce nematode populations.

Fallow ploughing will expose nematodes, leading to their desiccation.

Use resistant varieties, if available.

Practice crop rotation.

Practice mixed cropping. Mixed cropping with African marigold (Tagetes spp.) minimizes root-knot nematode damage.

Intercrop with different mustards (e.g. Brassica juncea var. integrifolia or Brassica juncea var. juncea) on infested fields. As soon as mustards are flowering they are mulched and incorporated into the soil. While incorporated plant parts are decomposing in a moist soil, Nematicides compounds of this decomposing process do kill nematodes. Two weeks after incorporating plant material into the soil a new crop can be planted or sown (phytotoxic effects are usual if the crop is planted before two weeks).

Use bioproducts (e.g. neem extracts).

Maintain high levels of organic matter in the soil (manure or compost)

23 Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci)

Whiteflies feed on leaves of kale sucking plant sap.

Whiteflies are vectors of the mosaic virus reported to occasionally affect kale.

Management

Apply neem products and Imidacloprid. Neem products have given control of the tobacco whitefly on kale.

If the seedlings are produced under open field conditions, use yellow sticky traps at the rate of 1-2 traps/50-100 m2 to trap the whiteflies Hang the traps slightly above or at the canopy level for better trapping.

Maintain a high standard of weed control in seedling production areas

Plant fast-growing crops like maize, sorghum, or pearl millet in the border of the field to act as barriers to reduce whitefly infestations.

Reflective plastic or straw mulches may reduce landing of whiteflies on kale crops.

Cutworms (Agrotis spp.)

These caterpillars are serious pests particularly in nurseries and of newly transplanted plants. They attack kales and many other plants at night. They cut seedlings and usually drag them down into the soil leaving the clean-cut stem. They cannot cut older plants. Large ground beetles, frogs, and birds prey cutworm.

Management

Plough and harrow the field prior to transplanting. This exposes cutworms to natural enemies and desiccation and helps destroy plant residue that could harbor cutworms.

Make barriers to protect the transplanted seedlings. Barriers can be made by wrapping paper, aluminum foil, and thin cardboard or similar materials around the base of transplant stems. Toilet rolls are handy as cutworm collars since they are readily available and will biodegrade into the soil.

Dig near damaged seedlings and destroy cutworms.

Conserve natural enemies. Parasitic wasps and ants are important in natural control of cutworms Flea beetles (Epitrix fuscula, Epitrix hirtipennis)

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Small holes or pits in leaves that give the foliage a characteristic “shot hole” appearance; young plants and seedlings are particularly susceptible; plant growth may be reduced; if damage is severe the plant may be killed; the pest responsible for the damage is a small (1.5–3.0 mm) dark colored beetle which jumps when disturbed; the beetles are often shiny in appearance

Management

In areas where flea beetles are a problem, floating row covers may have to be used prior to the emergence of the beetles to provide a physical barrier to protect young plants

Plant seeds early to allow establishment before the beetles become a problem - mature plants are less susceptible to damage

Trap crops may provide a measure of control - cruciferous plants are best

Application of a thick layer of mulch may help prevent beetles from reaching the surface

Application on diamotecoeus earth or oils such as neem oil are effective to control methods for organic growers

Application of insecticides containing Carbaryl, spinosad, Bifenthrin, and permethrin can provide adequate control of beetles for up to a week but will need to be reapplied

Cabbage Worms

Cabbage worms begin appearing after you see white butterflies flitting about in your garden. In addition to mating, they are laying eggs on every kale plant they can find.

Management

Many of the cabbage worms’ natural enemies, especially wasps,

Hand-picking your cabbage worms

Use row cover barriers to prevent egg laying

Use an organic pesticide that uses Bacillus thuringiensis or spinosad as its active ingredient.

25 Cabbage lopper

Pale green measuring worm with thin white stripes down back and sides. Up to 1 and 1/2 inches long. Caterpillar doubles-up, or loops, when it crawls. Common Host Plant(s): Cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower, kohlrabi, collards, Brussels sprout, turnip, mustard, broccoli, and kale. Damage: Feeds on the underside of leaves producing ragged holes; large loopers burrow into heads. Loopers are hard to kill

Management

Handpick caterpillars off plants and crush them

Plow under crop remnants in the dry season to bury resting pupae before the emergence of adults.

Organic/Biological Control: Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt. Bacillus thuringiensis will work but its results are not quickly observable; loopers (and other caterpillars) get sick the first day and die later. It is not necessary to wait before harvesting after an application of Bt.

Several parasitic wasps (Hyposoter, Copidosoma, and Trichogramma) attack the cabbage loopers as do general predators and virus diseases.

Mass releases of Trichogramma may provide control in kales.

Chemical Control: Treat with a registered insecticide every 4 days after first true leaves appear until harvest if worms are still present. Direct insecticide to the undersides of leaves.

Practice crop rotation

Cabbage webworm (Hellula undalis)

Caterpillars are 1.5 cm when fully-grown, creamy-white in color with brown stripes along the body and a brown head.

Caterpillars feed on leaves, petioles, growing points, and stems.

Management

Use neem based product and Bt.

Chemical Control: Treat with a registered insecticide every 4 days after first true leaves appear until harvest if worms are still present. Direct insecticide to the undersides of leaves

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Diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella) – The larva is a green caterpillar which feeds on the leaf tissue except for the veins. Infestation causes significant losses if the pest is not controlled.

Management

To control DBM in small farms, cover seedlings with covers (fine nylon mesh) to prevent moths from laying eggs on the leaves and or next to the plant.

Intercropping brassicas with trap plants such as Indian mustard, and repellent plants such as tomato, reportedly reduces DBM infestation in cabbage. When intercropping with tomato, the cabbage crop is planted 30 days after tomato.

Biological control of DBM using parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum has proven very effective in the highlands of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Botanicals such as neem-based pesticides are very effective for control of DBM.

Also, Bt sprays are effective against DBM Handpick larvae and crush them

Sawflies (Athalia spp) –

Sawflies are sporadic but serious pests of brassicas. Sawfly adults are wasps with dark head and thorax, a bright yellow abdomen, and two pairs of membranous wings. Larvae eat the blades of leaves leaving just the main veins. They drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. The larvae feed on the leaves creating small regular holes and this leads to the production of poor quality leaves.

Management

Destruction of wild plants of the family of cabbages in the vicinity of the crop.

Ploughing in of volunteer plants at the end of the season helps reduce sawfly populations.

Manual collection and destruction of larvae is feasible when there are few sawflies on the crop

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Common insect pests on kales in Uganda

Thrips damage Leaf hopper

Root-knot nematodes Cutworms

Flea beetles Diamondback Moth

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Cabbage Aphids Whiteflies

Cabbageworm Cabbage lopper

Sawfly Cabbage webworm

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Integrated pest management approaches for the pest in kale production Cultural control

1. Avoid kale monocultures and follow crop rotations.

2. Avoid planting kales near cucurbits and cotton fields if Thrips and aphids are common in the region.

3. Keep weeds under control in kale seedling production areas as well as in kale fields to reduce the availability of alternate host plants for some of the major insect pests.

4. Grow okra as a trap crop along the borders of kale field, and focus pesticide spraying on the okra trap crop to manage leafhoppers. Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum, or pearl millet to reduce the infestation of whiteflies.

5. Avoid ratoon cropping if stem borer is a serious problem in the region.

6. Practice crop rotation to break disease and pest cycles.

Host plant resistance

6. Choose resistant or tolerant cultivars for the major insect pests in consultation with the extension service.

Mechanical control

7. Do not raise kale seedlings near an existing or previous kale crop or heaps of dried kale stalks. If seedlings must be grown in those areas, cover the seedling beds with 30-mesh nylon net to prevent the entry of moths, which would lay eggs on the growing seedlings. If sucking insects such as whitefly and thrips are common in the region, use the 50–64 mesh nylon net to cover the seedling beds. Use seedling trays under the net-tunnels or net-houses for seedling production.

8. Remove and destroy infested shoots and leaves promptly at regular intervals until the final harvest to manage the pest. This will be highly effective when practiced throughout a community.

Behavioral control

9. To monitor insect populations, use yellow sticky traps to attract whitefly and leafhoppers and blue sticky traps to attract thrips.

10. Use reflective plastic or straw mulches to reduce the incidence of whiteflies and Thrips on kale crops.

Biological control

11. Apply neem formulations if recommended in the region, as soil drenches or through foliar application to control whitefly in kale seedling production.

12. Use neem-based biopesticides, which will not interfere with the activities of predators and parasitoids in kale production systems.

13. Apply neem cake to the soil to reduce the incidence of stem borer.

Chemical control

14. Do not spray any broad-spectrum pesticides against early-season sucking pests. This may disrupt the complex of natural enemies in the ecosystem and lead to a resurgence of sucking pests. If necessary, use systemic pesticides recommended by the local extension service in the region. Do not use the same compound or pesticide group(s) continuously to reduce the development of pesticide resistance in insects.

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Non-chemical pest management in kale production Bio-pesticide Method of preparation Pests controlled

Soap spray

Mix 2½ tbsp. of liquid soap to 5 liters of water. Stir well.

Another method is to mix 1 tbsp. of dishwashing detergent with1 cup of cooking oil, to make a stock solution.

For 5 liters of spray, add 5-8 tbsp. of stock solution to 5 liters of water.

Ants with the cloth and leave it as such for 3 days. Strain to get the clear extract.

Dilute 1 liter of neem leaf extract with 9 liters of water. Add 100 ml of soap.

Stir well.

Aphids

Colorado potato beetles

Grasshoppers, Grubs

 Japanese beetles

Leafhoppers

Locusts, Planthoppers

Scales, Snails

Constantly shake the container or stir the extract while in the process of the application to prevent oil from separating.

Leafhoppers

Imported cabbageworm

Squash bugs

Whiteflies

Ginger, garlic,

and chili extract Soak 50 g of peeled garlic overnight in 10 ml Mineral oil. Combine garlic, 25 g of green chilies, and 25 g of

Caterpillars, Corn earworm

Fruit borers, Leafminers

Shoot borers, Thrips

Tomato fruit worm

Whiteflies

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Bio-pesticide Method of preparation Pests controlled Neem powdered

seed extract Add 50 grams of the powdered kernel in 1liter of water. Let it stand for 6 hours but not more than 16hours.

Leafhoppers, Leafminers

Red locusts

Mexican bean beetles

Whiteflies Sticky board trap To use, place 1-4 sticky cards per 300 sq.

m field area. Replace traps at least once a week.

To make your own sticky trap, spread petroleum jelly or used motor oil on painted plywood of the desired color, 6 cm x 15cm in size or up. Place traps near the plants but far away enough to prevent the leaves from sticking to the board. Traps, when hung, should be positioned 61 cm zone above the plants.

Blue sticky cards-Thrips

White sticky cards

Flea beetles, tarnished plant bugs

overnight in 2-3liters of water. Strain. Add 8-12 ml soap. Stir well

of hydrated lime and 1 5 liters of water (4 liters of water) in a plastic bucket. Stir using wooden stick Cautions

Use only plastic containers. Shake or stir to prevent extract from clogging. Spray only on the dry and sunny day, preferably early morning liters and10 ml soap as adhesive.

Leafy caterpillars

Coffee Rust

Leaf rust

Mosaic virus

Powdery mildew

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Natural pesticides plant sources

Papaya leaf Ginger

Marigold Chili pepper

Basil leaves

Neem leaves Neem seed

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Nutrient deficiencies

Growing healthy kale plants is the best way of avoiding problems. Healthy kales grow on a healthy and well-nourished soil with a good texture. Good compost is the best and most balanced soil and

plant feed available to farmers.

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Common nutrient deficiencies in kales

Magnesium Potassium Nitrogen

Magnesium Calcium Phosphorus

Boron Iron Manganese

Molybdenum Zinc Copper

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Remedy to nutrient deficiencies in kales

Nutrient Deficiency Comment Fertilizer sources

MACRONUTRIENTS

Replace macronutrients in soils regularly (at least once per growing season) Calcium

(Ca) New leaves (top of the plant) are distorted or irregularly shaped. Lack of calcium leads to a condition called blossom-end rot.

Desert soils and water generally have plenty of calcium, so deficiency problems are rare.

Excessive calcium can limit the

Most plants absorb nitrogen in the form of ammonium or nitrate. arrowhead shape in the center of the leaf.

Plants absorb magnesium as an ion (charged particle), which can be readily leached from the soil, Maybe readily leached from the soil if calcium is not present.

Anything with the word

(P) Leaf tips look burnt, followed by older leaves turning a dark green or reddish-purple.

Plants absorb phosphorus in the form of phosphate. This form dissolves only slightly in water, but pH strongly affects uptake.

Anything with the

Plants absorb potassium as an ion, which can be readily leached from the soil. Desert soils and water first, sometimes followed by older leaves.

Plants absorb sulphur in the form of sulphate. This readily leaches from the soil. Sulphur may acidify the soil (lower the pH).

Anything with the word

“Sulphate.”

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MICRONUTRIENTS

Replace when deficiency symptoms are evident.

Boron

(B) Terminal buds die,

witches ’brooms form. Plants absorb boron in the form of borate. Problems are seen in

the plant is stunted. Plants absorb copper as an ion. Anything with the words

“copper,” “cupric,” or

Plants absorb manganese as an ion through their foliage as well as plant is often light green.

Plants absorb molybdenum in the

form of molybdate. Anything with the words

"molybdate" or

"molybdic."

Zinc

(Zn) Terminal leaves may be rosetted, and yellowing occurs between the veins

Magnesium deficiency symptom in leaf evident

in yellow parts of the leaf

Interveinal chlorosis, a symptom of iron, zinc And manganese deficiencies, evident in yellow parts of the

leaf.

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Costs benefit analysis for kale (Sukuma wiki) in Uganda.

Projected Expenditure for production for 1 acre: Case: using inorganic fertilizers with no irrigation.

PARTICULARS Qn UNITS # COST TOTAL

Procurement of kale seed 1 Tins 1 40,000 40,000

polyethylene pots 1 kgs 2 20,000 40,000

Subtotal 80,000

Nursery management

Insecticides/Fungicide 2 Bottles 1 30,000 60,000

Purchase of chicken manure 4 Bags 1 15,000 60,000

Labour for making beds and applying manure 2 Persons 1 5,000 10,000

Cutting and ferrying of mulch to the site 2 Persons 1 5,000 10,000

Sowing seed 2 Persons 1 5,000 10,000

Establishment of shed over the bed 2 Persons 1 5,000 10,000

Subtotal 160,000

Management of Nursery

Watering of nursery beds 1 Person 30 5,000 150,000

Weeding and spraying 2 Persons 6 5,000 60,000

Subtotal 210,000

Land preparation (1 Acre)

Bush clearing 5 Persons 5 10,000 250,000

1st and 2nd Ploughing 1 Acres 2 150,000 300,000

Harrowing 1 Acres 1 130,000 130,000

Subtotal 680,000

Planting

Cutting pegs and Field marking 6 Persons 2 5,000 60,000

Labour for digging holes and planting 5 Persons 3 5,000 75,000

Watering of plants 5 person 2 5,000 50,000

Water 1 Tank 1 50,000 50,000

Subtotal 235,000

Management of the garden

Procurement of pesticide 5 Liters 1 25,000 125,000

Procurement of fungicide 5 Kg 1 35,000 175,000

Procurement of chicken manure 1 Trips 1 250,000 250,000

Procurement of inorganic fertilizer -NPK - 17:17:17 1 Bags 1 150,000 150,000

Procurement of inorganic fertilizer -Urea 1 Bags 1 150,000 150,000

Labour for spraying 5 times 3 5,000 75,000

Labour for manure application & weeding 5 persons 22 5,000 550,000

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Hilling -up 5 persons 2 5,000 50,000

PARTICULARS Qn UNITS # COST TOTAL

Watering ( 4 weeks) 3 persons 5 5,000 240,000

Subtotal 1,765,000

Harvesting

Labour for harvesting, sorting and packing 5 persons 12 5,000 300,000

Transport for produce 1 person 12 35,000 420,000

Subtotal 720,000

Total 3,850,000

Miscellaneous (10% of the total cost ) 297,000

Total Cost 4,147,000

Materials Qn unit cost Amount( Ushs)

Contingency ( 15% of the total cost ) 622050

Grand total cost 4,769,050

Yield /acre ( kgs) less losses 17,000

Gross income 500/kg 8,500,000

Net income 3,730,950

Return on investment (ROI) 178.2326

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Common pesticides used in Uganda (A) Fungicides

Trade Name Active ingredient Formulation Action Agrolaxyl MZ Metalaxyl +

Mancozeb Wettable powder Late blight

Agrozeb80WP Mancozeb 80% WP Wettable powder Damping off , seed borne diseases

Arason Thiram powder fungus

Bayfidan Triadimenol liquid powdery mildew -tomato

Benlate

Benomyl-Benzimidazole Liquid fungus-tomato

Cobox50wp oxychloride Wettable powder rust, coffee berry disease Copper WP Copper Wettable powder Fungus control

Copper

Nordox50%WP cuprous oxide Wettable powder Fungus control Cuprous Oxide cuprous oxide Wettable powder Fungus control

Nordox50%WP cuprous oxide Wettable powder Fungus control Cuprous Oxide cuprous oxide Wettable powder Fungus control

문서에서 KALE PRODUCTION MANUAL (페이지 25-50)

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